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  (Anthony Jenkins for The Globe and Mail)

 

(Anthony Jenkins for The Globe and Mail)

ELECTORAL REFORM

An open letter on the Fair Elections Act Add to ...

Last month, more than 160 professors signed an open letter to express grave concerns about the damage to Canadian democracy that the “Fair Elections Act,” Bill C-23, would cause. Today, we the undersigned, an even larger group of professors who share a deep concern over this legislation, urge the government to withdraw the bill and draft truly fair election reforms based on meaningful consultations with opposition parties, non-partisan experts, Elections Canada and the public. There is no reason to depart from this laudable Canadian tradition for electoral reform.

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Committees in both the House of Commons and the Senate have now heard from many experts and citizens’ groups. Overwhelmingly, these witnesses have criticized the legislation. Despite the government’s claim that “ordinary Canadians” support the bill, a recent poll reveals that a majority of citizens oppose it. It appears that the more citizens know about it, the less they like it.

Senators have raised concerns about the bill and suggested some amendments. Unfortunately, their proposals cannot salvage an irremediably flawed bill. Of the concerns raised in the academics’ first open letter, the Senators directly address just one: the “fundraising loophole” that could give the governing party an advantage in campaign spending.

The following glaring defects of Bill C-23 would remain:

Investigating electoral fraud. Bill C-23 fails to provide the Commissioner of Elections power to compel witness testimony in investigating systematic electoral fraud such as the 2011 “robocalls” scandal. Witnesses with knowledge of fraudulent activity can – and regularly do – refuse to provide information to investigators. The bill’s proposed voter contact registry will not greatly enhance the capacity to prosecute fraud, and its increased penalties for fraud do nothing if investigators cannot prove crimes.

Polling supervision. Under Bill C-23, winning parties will appoint election poll supervisors – a further intrusion of partisanship in the electoral process, and one that creates an advantage for the incumbent party. The government has not addressed objections to this measure, and there is no sound rationale for it.

Voter turnout. With the sole exception of school programs, such as Student Vote, the Senate amendments retain the gag on Elections Canada’s efforts to encourage voter turnout. Senator Linda Frum has asserted that Elections Canada is in a “conflict of interest” when it promotes turnout, claiming that heightened participation comes at the expense of electoral integrity. This position is unjustified in both fact and logic. Public outreach that encourages all citizens to vote – not just those who support one party or another – is central to the mandate of electoral commissions worldwide, such as those in Australia, India, and New Zealand.

The Charter guarantee of the right to vote. By eliminating vouching and refusing voter information cards as proof of address, the bill undermines the right to vote protected by Section 3 of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, a constitutional entitlement so fundamental that it cannot be limited by the Charter’s “notwithstanding” clause. Where governments require voter identification, international best practices require that governments issue free ID to all eligible voters. This bill does the opposite: it takes away existing forms of cost-free ID. The Senate’s proposed requirement of “letters of attestation” from First Nations, homeless shelters and elder-care facilities would offload government responsibility onto under-resourced communities without resolving the underlying constitutional issues. There is no doubt that the bill’s voter ID restrictions will be challenged in court for violating the constitutionally protected right to vote. By insisting on these measures, the government invites costly legal battles for no clear public end.

Elections Canada. As former auditor-general Sheila Fraser has persuasively argued, Bill C-23 undermines Elections Canada, an internationally renowned non-partisan agency. The damage done by the government’s gratuitous public attacks against Ms. Fraser and the Chief Electoral Officer goes even deeper. By casting doubt on the non-partisanship of independent officers of Parliament, the government unsettles the delicate balance of powers that secures our democratic system of government.

The Senate committee has failed to respond adequately to the many legitimate criticisms of the other features of Bill C-23. These include campaign finance rules, the Treasury Board’s veto power over Elections Canada’s appointment of specialized staff, and the failure to require political parties to provide receipts for electoral expenses (even though they are reimbursed more than $30-million at taxpayer expense).

While the Senate report recommends that Elections Canada and the commissioner should be able to alert the public about “problems they uncover,” it does not explicitly lift the gag order imposed by the bill or ask that the government clarify whether the commissioner can publicly discuss investigations before charges are laid.

We implore all responsible public office-holders to heed reason, evidence and experience. The government should withdraw this bill and begin anew. We urge all conscientious members of Parliament to work to this end and, if necessary, to vote against the bill. And failing that, senators should keep faith with their role in our constitutional order – the voice of sober second thought – and return it to the House of Commons for further amendment.

Free and fair elections lie at the heart of our democracy. The government should not underestimate the commitment of Canadians to defend this fundamental principle.

Melissa Williams is professor of political science at the University of Toronto. Yasmin Dawood is assistant professor of law at the University of Toronto. Maxwell Cameron is professor of political science at the University of British Columbia. Monique Deveaux is professor of philosophy at the University of Guelph. Genevieve Fuji Johnson is associate professor of political science at Simon Fraser University. Patti Lenard is assistant professor in the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs at the University of Ottawa.

Co-signatories:

Frances Abele, Professor, School of Public Policy and Administration, Carleton University

Arash Abizadeh, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, McGill University

Yasmeen Abu-Laban, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Alberta                                      

Laurie Adkin, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science and Environmental Studies Programme, University of Alberta

Gregory Albo, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, York University

Robert Anderson, Professor, Faculty of Environment, Simon Fraser University

Lesley Andres, Professor, Department of Educational Studies, University of British Columbia

Caroline Andrew, Professor and Past President, Canadian Political Science Association, Centre on Governance, University of Ottawa

Edward Andrew, Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Victor Armony, Professor, Department of Sociology, Université du Québec à Montréal

Barbara Arneil, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of British Columbia

Robert Asselin, Associate Director, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa

Yıldız Atasoy, Professor, Department of Sociology, Simon Fraser University

Chloë G. K. Atkins, Associate Professor, Department of Communication and Culture, University of Calgary

Michael Atkinson, Professor and Past President, Canadian Political Science Association, Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy, University of Saskatchewan

Gerald Baier, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of British Columbia

Joel Bakan, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia

Natasha Bakht, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa

Herman Bakvis, Professor, School of Public Administration, University of Victoria

Ryan Balot, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Geraldine Balzer, Assistant Professor, College of Education, University of Saskatchewan

Keith Banting, Professor and Past President, Canadian Political Science Association, School of Policy Studies, Queen's University

Deborah Barndt, Professor, Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University

Darin Barney, Associate Professor, Department of Art History and Communication Studies, McGill University

Sylvia Bashevkin, Professor and Past President, Canadian Political Science Association, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Pierre Beaudet, Replacement Professor, School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa

Ronald Beiner, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Daniel Béland, Professor, Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy, University of Saskatchewan

Louise Bélanger-Hardy, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa

Colleen Bell, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Studies, University of Saskatchewan

Karim Benyekhlef, Professor, Faculty of Law, Université de Montréal

Loleen Berdhal, Associate Professor, Department of Political Studies, University of Saskatchewan

Philip B. Berger, Associate Professor, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto

Rachel Berman, Associate Professor, School of Early Childhood Studies, Ryerson University

Steven Bernstein, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Albert Berry, Professor Emeritus, Department of Economics, University of Toronto

Harold Bérubé, Assistant Professor, Department of History, University of Sherbrooke

Davina Bhandar, Associate Professor, Department of Canadian Studies, Trent University

Laurence Bherer,  Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Université de Montréal

Antoine Bilodeau, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Concordia University

Andrew Biro, Associate Professor, Department of Politics, Acadia University

Amanda Bittner, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Memorial University

David Black, Professor, Department of Political Science, Dalhousie University

André Blais, Professor and Past President, Canadian Political Science Association, Department of Political Science, Université de Montréal

Charles Blattberg, Professor, Department of Political Science, Université de Montréal

Gregory Blue, Associate Professor, Department of History, University of Victoria

John A. Boan, Professor Emeritus, Department of Economics, University of Regina

Michel Bock, Associate Professor, Department of History, University of Ottawa

Michelle Bonner, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Victoria

Pierre Bosset, Professor, Faculty of Law, Université du Québec à Montréal

Suzanne Bouclin, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa

Sophie Bourgault, Assistant Professor, School of Political Studies, University of Ottawa

Susan Boyd, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia

Leah Bradshaw, Professor of Political Science, Brock University, Department of Political Science, Brock University

Susan Braedley, Assistant Professor, School of Social Work, Carleton University

Martin Breaugh, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, York University

Gilles Breton, Professor, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa

Janine Brodie, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Alberta

David Brown, Postdoctoral Fellow, School of Political Studies, University of Ottawa

Chris Brown, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Carleton University

Leslie Brown, Professor, Mount Saint Vincent University

Alan Brudner, Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science and Faculty of Law, University of Toronto

Pamela Bryant, Professor, School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Toronto

Penny Bryden, Professor, Department of History, University of Victoria

Clint Burnham, Associate Professor, Department of English, Simon Fraser University

Gillian Calder, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law University of Victoria

David Cameron, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Barbara Cameron, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, York University

Angela Cameron, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa

Lara Campbell, Associate Professor, Department of Gender, Sexuality, and Women's Studies, Simon Fraser University

Gail Campbell, Professor Emerita, Department of History, University of New Brunswick

Eduardo Canel, Associate Professor, Department of Social Science, York University

Mel Cappe, Professor, School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Toronto

Joseph Carens, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Paul R. Carr, Associate Professor, Departments of Sociology and Interdisciplinary Studies, Lakehead University

R. Kenneth Carty, Professor Emeritus and Past President, Canadian Political Science Association, Department of Political Science, University of British Columbia

Julián Castro-Rea, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Alberta

Amandine Catala, Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy, Université du Québec à Montréal

Simone Chambers, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Ann Chinnery, Associate Professor, Faculty of Education, Simon Fraser University

Dorothy Chunn, Professor Emerita, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Simon Fraser University

Ryoa Chung, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Université de Montréal

David Ciavatta, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Ryerson University

Ian Clark, Professor, School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Toronto

Allyson Clay, Professor, School for the Contemporary Arts, Simon Fraser University

Colin Coates, Professor, Department of Canadian Studies, York University

Marjorie Griffin Cohen, Professor, Department of Political Science, Simon Fraser University

Daniel Cohn, Associate Professor, School of Public Policy and Administration, York University

Donald C. Cole, Associate Professor, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto

William Coleman, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Waterloo

Stephen Collis, Associate Professor, Department of English, Simon Fraser University

Thomas Collombat, Professor, Department of Social Sciences, Université du Québec en Outaouais

Margaret Conrad, Professor Emerita, Department of History, University of New Brunswick

J. F. Conway, Professor, Department of Sociology and Social Studies, University of Regina

Eleanor Cook, Professor Emerita, Department of English, University of Toronto

Ramsay Cook, Professor Emeritus, Department of History, York University

David Cook, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Michael Cottrell, Associate Professor, Department of Educational Administration, University of Saskatchewan

John Courtney, Professor and Past President, Canadian Political Science Association Department of Political Science University of Saskatchewan

Wesley Crichlow, Associate Professor, Faculty of Social Science and Humanities, University of Ontario Institute of Technology

Julie Cruikshank,  Department of Anthropology, University of British Columbia

Dara Culhane, Professor, Department of Sociology, Simon Fraser University

Frank Cunningnam, Professor Emeritus, Departments of Philosophy and Political Science, University of Toronto

Bruce Curtis, Professor, Department of Sociology, Carleton University

Hugo Cyr, Professor, Department of Political Science and Law, Université du Québec à Montréal

Eline de Rooij, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Simon Fraser University

George Dei, Professor, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

Radhika Desai, Professor, Department of Political Studies, University of Manitoba

Rita Dhamoon, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Victoria

Jordi Díez, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Guelph

Don Dippo, Professor, Faculty of Education, York University

Alexandra Dobrowolsky, Professor, Department of Political Science, Saint Mary’s University

Laurent Dobuzinskis, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Simon Fraser University

Steve Dodge, Associate Professor, Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University

Stefan Dolgert, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Brock University

Michael Donnelly, Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Christopher Dornan, Associate Professor, School of Journalism and Communication Carleton University

Mathieu Doucet Assistant Professor Department of Philosophy University of Waterloo

Daniel Drache, Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science, York University

Robert J. Drummond, Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science, York University

Jane Dryden, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Mount Allison University

Janique Dubois, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Brock University

David Duff, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia

Pascale Dufour, Professor, Department of Political Science, Université de Montréal

Frédérick Guillaume Dufour, Department of Sociology, Université du Québec à Montréal

Christopher Dummit, Associate Professor, Department of History, Trent University

Margrit Eichler, Professor Emerita, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

Avigail Eisenberg, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Victoria

Pearl Eliadis, Lawyer and Instructor, Faculty of Law, McGill University

Jason Ellis, Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Studies, University of British Columbia

Lynda Erickson, Professor Emerita, Department of Political Science, Simon Fraser University

Bryan Evans, Associate Professor, Department of Politics and Public Administration, Ryerson University

Dickson Eyoh, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Patrick Fafard, Associate Professor, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa

Patricia Fagan, Associate Professor, Department of Languages, Literatures, and Cultures, University of Windsor

Katherine Fierlbeck, Professor, Department of Political Science, Dalhousie University

Fred Fletcher, Professor Emeritus, Departments of Communication Studies and Political, Science York University

Craig Forcese, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa

Cristie Ford, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia

Benjamin Forest, Associate Professor, Department of Geography, McGill University

Lisa Forman, Assistant Professor, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto

John Foster, Contract Instructor, Department of Political Science, Carleton University

Aude-Claire Fourot, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Simon Fraser University

Ursula Franklin, Professor Emerita, Massey College, University of Toronto

Harriet Friedmann, Professor Emerita, Department of Sociology, University of Toronto

Matthias Fritsch, Professor, Department of Philosophy, McGill University

Doreen Fumia, Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, Ryerson University

Marc Furstenau, Associate Professor, School for Studies in Art and Culture, Carleton University

Donald Fyson, Associate Professor, Department of History, Université Laval

Alain-G Gagnon, Professor, Department of Political Science, Université du Québec à Montréal

Marc-André Gagnon, Assistant Professor, School of Public Policy and Administration, Carleton University

Judith A. Garber, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Alberta

Andrea Geiger, Associate Professor, Department of History, Simon Fraser University

Alexandra Gheciu, Associate Professor, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa

Roger Gibbons, Professor Emeritus, and Past President Canadian Political Science Association, Department of Political Science, University of Calgary

Elisabeth Gidengil, Professor and Past President, Canadian Political Science Association, Department of Political Science, McGill University

Pablo Gilabert, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Concordia University

Mona Gleason, Professor, Department of Educational Studies, University of British Columbia

Maya J. Goldenberg, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Guelph

Luin Goldring, Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, York University

Cy Gonick, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Winnipeg

Kirsten Good, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Dalhousie University

David A. Good, Professor, School of Public Administration, University of Victoria

Elizabeth Goodyear-Grant, Associate Professor, Department of Political Studies, Queen’s University

Lise Gotell, Professor, Department of Women's and Gender Studies, University of Alberta

Peter Graefe, Associate, Professor, Department of Political Science, McMaster University

Isabel Grant, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia

Joyce Green, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Regina

Jonathan Greene, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Trent University

Marie Annik Grégoire, Professor, Faculty of Law, Université de Montréal

Franklyn Griffiths, Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Ricardo Grinspun, Associate Professor, Department of Economics, York University

Ellen Gutterman, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, York University

Rodney Haddow, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Blayne Haggart, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Brock University

Celia Haig-Brown, Professor, Faculty of Education, York University

Peter Hall, Associate Professor, Urban Studies Program, Simon Fraser University

Margaret Isabel Hall, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, Thompson Rivers University

Paul A. Hamel, Professor, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto

Marie Hammond-Callaghan, Associate Professor, Department of History, Mount Allison University

Huamei Han, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Education, Simon Fraser University

Marc Hanvelt, Adjunct Research Professor, Department of Political Science, Carleton University

Eve Haque, Associate Professor, Department of Languages, Literatures and Linguistics, York University

Lois Harder, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Alberta

Kathryn Harrison, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of British Columbia

Matthew Hayday, Associate Professor, Department of History, University of Guelph

Andrew Heard, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Simon Fraser University

Joseph Heath, Professor, Departments of Philosophy and School of Public Policy and Governance, University of Toronto

Gerald K. Helleiner, Professor Emeritus, Department of Economics, University of Toronto

Susan Henders, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, York University

George Hoberg, Associate Member, Department of Political Science, University of British Columbia

Thomas Homer-Dixon, Professor, Balsillie School of International Affairs, University of Waterloo

Michiel Horn, Professor Emeritus, Department of History, York University

France Houle, Professor, Faculty of Law, Université de Montréal

Jula Hughes, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of New Brunswick

Gustavo Indart, Senior Lecturer, Department of Economics, University of Toronto

James Ingram, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, McMaster University

Martha Jackman, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa

Matthew James, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Victoria

Laura Janara, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of British Columbia

Nancy Janovicek, Associate Professor, Department of History University of Calgary

Leslie Jeffrey, Professor, Department of History and Politics, University of New Brunswick, Saint John

Candace Johnson, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Guelph

Rebecca Johnson, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Victoria

David Johnson, Professor, Department of Political Science, Cape Breton University

Juliet Johnson, Professor, Department of Political Science, McGill University

Richard Johnston, Professor, and Past President, Canadian Political Science Association, Department of Political Science, University of British Columbia

Mira Johri, Professor, School of Public Health, Université de Montréal

Peter Jones, Associate Professor, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa

Sharalyn Jordan, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Education, Simon Fraser University

Luc Juillet, Associate Professor, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa

Courtney Jung, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

David Kahane, Professor of Political Science, Department of Political Science, University of Alberta

Ilan Kapoor, Professor, Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University

Gregory Kealey, Professor, Department of History, University of New Brunswick

Willeen Keough, Associate Professor, Department of History, Simon Fraser University

Leslie Kern, Assistant Professor, Department of Geography and Environment, Mount Allison University

Loren King, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Wilfred Laurier University

Rebecca Kingston, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Paul Kingston, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto, Scarborough

Martin Klein, Professor Emeritus, Department of History, University of Toronto

Edward Anthony Koning, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Guelph

Jennifer Koshan, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Calgary

Konstantia Koutouki, Professor, Faculty of Law, Université de Montréal

Meena Krishnamurthy, Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Manitoba

Ed Ksenych, Professor, School of Liberal Arts and Sciences, George Brown College

Kathleen Lahey, Professor, Faculty of Law, Queen's University

Lucie Lamarche, Professor, Faculty of Political Science and Law, Université du Québec à Montréal

Tom Langford, Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Calgary

June Larkin, Senior Lecturer, Women and Gender Studies Institute, University of Toronto

Marianne A. Larsen, Associate Professor, Faculty of Education, University of Western Ontario

David Laycock, Professor, Department of Political Science, Simon Fraser University

Patrick Leblond, Associate Professor, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa

Steven Lecce, Department of Political Studies, University of Manitoba

Robert Leckey, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, McGill University

Jean Leclair, Professor, Faculty of Law, Université de Montréal

Larry Leduc, Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Theresa Lee, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Guelph

Rémi Léger, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Simon Fraser University

Hester Lessard, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Victoria

Helen Leung, Associate Professor, Department of Gender, Sexuality and Women's Studies, Simon Fraser University

Leah Levac, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Guelph

Jacqueline Levitin, Associate Professor, School for the Contemporary Arts (Film)/Department of Gender, Sexuality, and Women's Studies, Simon Fraser University

Brian Lewis, Professor, Department of History and Classical Studies, McGill University

Dominique Leydet, Professor, Department of Philosophy, Université du Québec à Montréal

James Lightbody, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Alberta

Mary Liston, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia

David W. Livingstone, Professor Emeritus, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

Kristina Llewellyn, Assistant Professor, Department of Social Development Studies, Renison University College, University of Waterloo

Rodney Loeppky, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, York University

Tina Loo, Professor, Department of History, University of British Columbia

Catherine Lu, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, McGill University

Laura MacDonald, Professor, Political Science, Carleton University

Audrey Macklin, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Toronto

Kym Maclaren, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Ryerson University

Colin Macleod, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Victoria

Jocelyn Maclure, Professor, Department of Philosophy, Université Laval

Michael MacMillan, Professor, Department of Political and Canadian Studies, Mount Saint Vincent University

Laura Madokoro, Assistant Professor, Department of History and Classical Studies, McGill University

Terry Maley, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, York University

Jean L. Manore, Professor, Department of History, Bishop's University

Gregory P. Marchildon, Professor, Johnson-Shoyama Graduate School of Public Policy, University of Regina

Patricia Marino, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Waterloo

Lynne Marks, Professor, Department of History, University of Victoria

Ruth Marshall, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science/Study of Religion, University of Toronto

Marcel Martel, Professor, Department of History, York University

George Martell, Associate Professor Emeritus, Department of Equity Studies, York University

Geoff Martin, Part-time Professor, Department of Politics and International Relations, Mount Allison University

Michèle Martin, Professor, School of Journalism and Communication, Carleton University

Sheila Mason, Professor, Department of Philosophy, Concordia University

Carissima Mathen, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa

Scott Matthews, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Memorial University

Diane K. Mauzy, Professor Emerita, Department of Political Science, University of British Columbia

Stephen McBride, Professor, Department of Political Science, McMaster University

Patricia McCarney, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Liza McCoy, Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Calgary

Patricia McDerdmott, Professor, Departments of Socio-Legal Studies and Gender Studies, York University

John McGarry, Professor, Department of Political Studies, Queen's University

David McGrane, Associate Professor, Department of Political Studies, St. Thomas More College, University of Saskatchewan

Michael McGregor, Assistant Professor, Department of Politics and International Studies, Bishop's University

Lisa McIntosh Sundstrom, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of British Columbia

Heather McKeen-Edwards, Associate Professor, Department of Politics and International Studies, Bishop's University

Lorna R. McLean, Associate Professor, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa

Janet McVittie, Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Foundations, University of Saskatchewan

Errol Mendes, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Ottawa

Robert Menzies, Professor, Department of Sociology, Simon Fraser University

David Meren, Associate Professor, Department of History, Université de Montréal

Loralea Michaelis, Associate Professor, Department of Politics and International Relations, Mount Allison University

Hans Michelmann, Professor, Department of Political Studies, University of Saskatchewan

Ian Milligan, Assistant Professor, Department of History, University of Waterloo

Lisa Mills, Associate Professor, School of Public Policy and Administration, Carleton University

Janet Miron, Associate Professor, Department of History, Trent University

Shahrzad Mojab, Professor, Department of Leadership, Higher and Adult Education, University of Toronto

Éric Montpetit, Professor, Department of Political Science, Université de Montréal

Margaret Moore, Professor, Department of Political Studies, Queen's University

Esteve Morera, Associate Professor, Departments of Philosophy and Political Science, York University

Sophie Morin, Professor Emerita, Faculty of Law, Université de Montréal

Michel Morin, Professor, Faculty of Law, Université de Montréal

David Morris, Professor, Department of Philosophy, Concordia University

Suzanne Morton, Professor, Department of History and Classical Studies, McGill University

Mary Jane Mossman, Professor, Faculty of Law, York University

William Moul, Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science, University of Waterloo

James Muir, Associate Professor, Department of History and Classics and Faculty of Law, University of Alberta

Tiffany Muller Myrdahl, Assistant Professor, Department of Gender, Sexuality, and Women's Studies, Simon Fraser University

Catherine Murray, Professor, School of Communication, Simon Fraser University

Karen Murray, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, York University

Christian Nadeau, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Université de Montréal

James Naylor, Associate Professor, Department of History, Brandon University

Jennifer Nedelsky, Professor, Faculty of Law and Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Janice Newton, Associate Professor, Departments of Political Science and School of Gender, Sexuality and Women's Studies, York University

Winnie Ng, CAW Sam Gindin Chair in Social Justice and Democracy, Faculty of Arts and the Faculty of Community Services, Ryerson University

Robert Nichols, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Alberta

Tim Nieguth, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Laurentian University

Carmen J. Nielson, Associate Professor, Department of History, Mount Royal University

Naomi Norquay, Associate Professor, Faculty of Education, York University

Kim Richard Nossal, Professor, School of Policy Studies, Queen's University, and Past President, Canadian Political Science Association

John O'Brian, Professor, Department of Art History, Visual Art and Theory, University of British Columbia

Michael O'Sullivan, Associate Professor, Department of Graduate and Undergraduate Studies, Brock University

Brenda O’Neill, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science University of Calgary

Nancy Olewiler, Professor, School of Public Policy, Simon Fraser University

Jason M. Opal, Associate Professor, Department of History, McGill University

James Orbinski, Professor, Balsillie School of International Affairs, University of Waterloo

Paul Orlowski, Assistant Professor, College of Education, University of Saskatchewan

Michael Orsini, Associate Professor, School of Political Studies, University of Ottawa

Umut Özsu, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Manitoba

Dimitrios Panagos, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Memorial University

Leo Panitch, Professor, Department of Political Science, York University

Martin Papillon, Associate Professor, School of Political Studies, University of Ottawa

Martin Pâquet, Professor, Department of History, Université Laval

Andrea Paras, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Guelph

Roland Paris, Associate Professor, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa

Debra Parkes, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Manitoba

Steve Patten, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Alberta

Justin Paulson, Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology and Anthropology, Carleton University

Christopher Pavsek, Associate Professor, School for the Contemporary Arts, Simon Fraser University

Omid Payrow Shabani, Professor, Department of Philosophy, Guelph University

Karen Pearlston, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of New Brunswick

Carla L. Peck, Associate Professor, Faculty of Education, University of Alberta

David Perinetti, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Université du Québec à Montréal

Martin Petitclerc, Professor, Department of History, Université du Québec à Montréal

Chiara Piazzesi, Professor, Department of Sociology, Université du Québec à Montréal

Dennis Pilon, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, York University

John Polanyi, Professor, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto

Pablo Policzer, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Calgary

Alison Prentice, Adjunct Professor, Department of History, University of Victoria

Richard Price, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of British Columbia

W. Wesley Pue, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia

Ian Radforth, Professor, Department of History, University of Toronto

Saeed Rahnema, Professor, Department of Political Science, York University

Tracey Raney, Associate Professor, Department of Politics and Public Administration, Ryerson University

Gillian Ranson, Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Calgary

David Rayside, Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Geoff Read, Assistant Professor, Department of History, University of Western Ontario

Jeffrey G. Reitz, Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Toronto

Philip Resnick, Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science, University of British Columbia

Nicholas Rivers, Assistant Professor, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa

Kent Roach, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Toronto

D. Gordon E. Robertson, Professor Emeritus, School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa

Douglas A. Ross, Professor, Department of Political Science, Simon Fraser University

Stephanie Ross, Associate Professor, Department of Social Science, York University

Robin Roth, Associate Professor, Department of Geography, York University

Andrea Rounce, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Studies, University of Manitoba

Jarrett Rudy, Associate Professor, Department of History, McGill University

Claudia Ruitenberg, Associate Professor, Department of Educational Studies, University of British Columbia

Peter Russell, Professor Emeritus, and Past President, Canadian Political Science Association, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

John Russon, Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Guelph

Eric W. Sager, Professor, Department of History, University of Victoria

Jeff Sahadeo, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Carleton University

Stephen M. Saideman, Professor, Norman Paterson School of International Affairs, Carleton University

Richard Sandbrook, Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Paul Saurette, Associate Professor, School of Political Studies, University of Ottawa

Stephen Bede Scharper, Associate Professor, School of the Environment and Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto

Edward Schatz, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto, Mississauga

Rebecca Schein, Assistant Professor, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies, Carleton University

Carol Schick, Associate Professor, Faculty of Education, University of Regina

David Schneiderman, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Toronto

Christa Scholtz, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, McGill University

Richard Schultz, Professor, Department of Political Science, McGill University

Jennifer Schulz, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Manitoba

Alan M. Sears, Professor, Faculty of Education, University of New Brunswick

Leslie Seidle, research director, Institute for Research on Public Policy

Ozlem Sensoy, Associate Professor, Faculty of Education, Simon Fraser University

Michel Seymour, Professor, Department of Philosophy, Université de Montréal

Martha Shaffer, Associate Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Toronto

Byron Sheldrick, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Guelph

Robert P. Shepherd, Associate Professor, School of Public Policy and Administration, Carleton University

Patricia Sheridan, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Guelph

Nicola Short, Department of Political Science, York University

Lynette Shultz, Associate Professor, Department of Educational Policy Studies, University of Alberta

Julie Simmons, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Guelph

Grace Skogstad, Professor and Past President, Canadian Political Science Association, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Harry Smaller, Associate Professor Emeritus, Faculty of Education, York University

Miriam Smith, Professor, and Past President, Canadian Political Science Association, Department of Political Science, York University

David E. Smith, Distinguished Visiting Professor, and Past President, Canadian Political Science Association, Department of Politics and Public Administration Ryerson University

Patrick Smith, Professor, Department of Political Science, Simon Fraser University

Charles Smith, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Studies, St. Thomas More College, University of Saskatchewan

E. Allyn Smith, Professor, Department of Linguistics, Université du Québec à Montréal

Denis Smith, Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science, University of Western Ontario

Robert Sparling, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, Université de Montréal

Mark Spooner, Associate Professor, Faculty of Education, University of Regina

Susan Spronk, Associate Professor, School of International Development and Global Studies, University of Ottawa

Maxime St-Hilaire, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Law, Université de Sherbrooke

Makere Stewart-Harawira, Associate Professor, Department of Educational Policy Studies, University of Alberta

Christine Straehle, Associate Professor, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa

Veronica Strong-Boag, Professor Emerita, and Past President, Canadian Historical Association, Institute for Gender, Race, Sexuality and Social Justice/Educational Studies, University of British Columbia

Richard Stubbs, Professor, Department of Political Science, McMaster University

John Stubbs, Professor Emeritus, Department of History, Simon Fraser University

Sharon Sutherland, Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science, Carleton University

Donald Swartz, Professor Emeritus, School of Public Policy and Administration, Carleton University

Paul Tarc, Assistant Professor, Faculty of Education, Western University

Christina Tarnopolsky, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, McGill University

Lisa Taylor, Professor, School of Education, Bishop's University

Hamish Telford, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of the Fraser Valley

Jean-François Thibault, Associate Professor, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Moncton

Melanee Thomas, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Calgary

Neil Thomlinson, Associate Professor, Department of Politics and Public Administration, Ryerson University

D. Gillian Thompson, Professor Emeritus, Department of History, University of New Brunswick

Tanya Titchkosky, Associate Professor, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto

Robert Tittler, Professor Emeritus, Department of History, Concordia University

Reeta Tremblay, Professor, and Past President, Canadian Political Science Association, Department of Political Science, University of Victoria

Linda Trimble, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Alberta

James Tully, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Victoria

Allan Tupper, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of British Columbia

Luc Turgeon, Assistant Professor, School of Political Studies, University of Ottawa

Patrick Turmel, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Université Laval

Lori Turnbull, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Dalhousie University

Martin Tweedale, Professor Emeritus, Department of Philosophy, University of Alberta

Trygve Ugland, Associate Professor, Department of Politics and International Studies, Bishop's University

Ross Upshur, Professor, Department of Family and Community Medicine and Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto

Anil Varughese, Assistant Professor, School of Public Policy and Administration, Carleton University

Robert Vipond, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Srdjan Vucetic, Associate Professor, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa

Keith Walden, Professor, Department of History, Trent University

Jennifer Wallner, Assistant Professor, School of Political Studies, University of Ottawa

William Walters, Professor, Department of Political Science, Carleton University

Wesley Wark, Visiting Professor, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa

Mark Warren, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of British Columbia

Lorraine E. Weinrib, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of Toronto

Daniel Weinstock, Professor, Faculty of Law, McGill University

David Welch, Professor, Balsillie School of International Affairs, University of Waterloo

Steven Weldon, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Simon Fraser University

Ker Wells, Assistant Professor, School for Contemporary Arts, Simon Fraser University

Karen Wendling, Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, University of Guelph

Joel Westheimer, Professor, Faculty of Education, University of Ottawa

Graham White, Professor, and Past President, Canadian Political Science Association, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Linda White, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Stephen White, Postdoctoral Fellow, Department of Political Science, Concordia University

Sandra Whitworth, Professor, Department of Political Science, York University

Wanda Wiegers, Professor, College of Law, University of Saskatchewan

Russell Alan Williams, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Memorial University

Janice Williamson, Professor, Department of English and Film Studies, University of Alberta

David A. Wolfe, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Toronto

Steven Wolinetz, Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science, Memorial University

Lloyd L. Wong, Associate Professor, Department of Sociology, University of Calgary

Robert Young, Professor and Past President, Canadian Political Science Association, Department of Political Science, University of Western Ontario

Margot Young, Professor, Faculty of Law, University of British Columbia

Anna Zalik, Associate Professor, Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University

Christoph Zürcher, Professor, Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa

David Zussman, Jarislowsky Chair in Public Management, Graduate School in Public and International Affairs, University of Ottawa

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