The makeup of juries goes on trial before Ontario's top court this week as two killers fight their guilty verdicts.
The aboriginal men argue their rights were violated because on-reserve First Nations people were excluded from the juries that convicted them.
Their lawyers argue it is a systemic problem, that aboriginals have been shut out from juries for years.
Last summer, the Ontario Court of Appeal upheld a manslaughter conviction against Clifford Kokopenace, but put its decision on hold pending this week's hearing.
Also involved is Clare Spiers, an aboriginal with a long record of violent crime.
He was convicted of first-degree murder in Barrie, Ont., for kidnapping a woman and slitting her throat.