Norwegians, reeling at the death of at least 93 adults and children in Friday's mass shootings and bombing attack, are being forced to confront the fact that the perpetrator is not a lone madman, but a highly organized Norwegian political terrorist who claims to be part of a Europe-wide movement opposed to Muslim immigrants and multiculturalism.
The confessed killer, 32-year-old Anders Behring Breivik, released a 1,500-page manifesto moments before his terror spree and made statements through his lawyer while being interrogated on the weekend that suggest he intends to use his atrocity as a platform to espouse a type of anti-immigrant politics that has become increasingly popular in Europe.
The revelations come as a blow to European police and intelligence officials, who now appear to face two parallel terror threats, one Islamic and one anti-Islamic, which share xenophobic beliefs, violent tactics and even inspirational leaders, and differ only in their targets.
Amid the grief over the car-bomb explosion set off by Mr. Breivik in central Oslo that killed at least seven, followed by a 90-minute shooting spree on a small island summer camp for supporters of the governing Labour Party in which Mr. Breivik chased down and killed at least 87 youth and children, some reportedly under 10 years old, Norwegians pledged to defy his beliefs.
"I am proud of living in a country that has managed to stand up on its feet in such a critical time. … We are still horrified over what happened. But we will never give up our values," Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg told thousands of people gathered at Oslo's cathedral for a sombre memorial service Sunday.
Mr. Stoltenberg repeated his call to reject the terrorist's anti-immigration and anti-multiculturalism rage by reinforcing those very values: "Our answer is more democracy, more openness, and more humanity - but never naivety."
Mr. Breivik, according to police, willingly confessed to the killings, though he claims that he was not breaking the law. At a pretrial hearing Monday he will be allowed to make a statement, which his lawyer said would be a lengthy declaration of his political beliefs. Norwegian authorities said they may close the hearing to the media.
They are also scrambling to assemble intelligence and policing resources to confront a political movement that had been considered alarming but largely non-violent in previous years, one that includes elected parties and movements in the Netherlands and Finland as well as scores of fringe parties and publications throughout the continent.
In his manifesto, titled "2083: A European Declaration of Independence" and written under an Anglicized version of his name, Mr. Breivik describes himself as a member of a nine-year-old organization he calls the Knights Templar Justiciar, comprising between 12 and 18 members, who pledge to use "martyrdom" to crush Muslim immigration, multiculturalism, and the individuals and parties who tolerate immigrants, who they characterize as "Marxists" or "multiculturalists."
Mr. Breivik's lawyer said on Sunday that his client is a member of an international network. The manifesto was first sent Friday morning to the True Finns, an extreme-right party that holds nearly 20 per cent of the seats in Finland's parliament.
The title of his work describes the year when Mr. Breivik believes that Muslims will become a majority in Europe and a racial war will be required. (This is based on demographic concepts, popular on the extreme right, that have been refuted by science. Muslims are and will remain a small minority in Europe.)
His manifesto draws approvingly on the ideas of popular anti-immigration and anti-multiculturalism writers and figureheads such as Geert Wilders, Bruce Bawer, Melanie Phillips, Theodore Dalrymple, and Canadian Mark Steyn in order to characterize Muslims as being united in an ideological conspiracy to impose a "Eurabia" through "demographic warfare" and dominate the population.
From this, he orders a three-stage war, which he says will require "approx. 45,000 dead and 1 million wounded cultural Marxists/multiculturalists in Western Europe."
Friday's attack, he writes, will launch this campaign and inspire others. The targeting of youth and the sadistic carnage are carefully detailed, down to specifying the use of hollow-point bullets, which Mr. Breivik employed in his rampage because they cause maximum internal damage.
"Once you decide to strike, it is better to kill too many rather than not enough, or you risk reducing the desired ideological impact of the strike," he writes.
If those words bear a strong resemblance to the declarations of the late al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden, it is no coincidence: Mr. Breivik admits in "2083" that he is an admirer and student of bin Laden's ideas, both racial and tactical. He calls the group a "successful militant organization" to be emulated by white Europeans, at one point writing: "If Mohammed was alive today, Osama bin Laden would have been his second-in-command … reason for success: Superior structural adaptation."
This is followed by a day-by-day diary chronicling his construction of the bomb and assembly of weapons and ammunition for Friday's attacks, as well as his use of fraudulent credit cards and a false farm business to assemble the money and ammonium nitrate fertilizer necessary for the attacks.
"I prayed for the first time in a very long time today," he writes on June 11 - he is not especially religious, despite being obsessed with the Christian roots of European civilization. "I explained to God that unless he wanted the Marxist-Islamic alliance and the certain Islamic takeover of Europe to completely annihilate European Christendom within the next hundred years he must ensure that the warriors fighting for the preservation of European Christendom prevail."
His final entry is the morning of July 22, the day of the attacks, in which he jokes that police might "get the wrong idea and think I was a terrorist, LOL."
While his violent militancy is alien to Norwegian life, many Norwegians say that his extreme views on Muslims and immigration are increasingly popular with a vocal minority within their country's political life, and that this may have inspired Mr. Breivik's attacks.
"Some politicians have resorted to scare tactics and populist rhetoric in an attempt to appeal to larger electoral groups," says Jarle Traavik, an academic specializing in cultural conflict at the University of Oslo. "In my view, these scare tactics have created an environment which has allowed the evil of July 22 to gestate."Report Typo/Error