Reactions to the Egyptian coup across the Middle East often rest on the state of political Islamism and ties to the Muslim Brotherhood in each place. Here is a quick guide.
In the 1928 birthplace of the Muslim Brotherhood, Mohammed Morsi, one of the Brotherhood’s leaders, was elected in April, 2012, after the previous year’s revolution overthrew Hosni Mubarak. Mr. Morsi was deposed by the military this week. Islamists are now demanding the reinstatement of Mr. Morsi, confronting security forces at a compound where he is believed to be held.
The Islamist organization Hamas has enjoyed the support of a large number of Palestinians since it was elected in 2006, despite increased tension with Israel and the more secular, West Bank-based Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas. The recent resignation of Palestinian prime minister Rami Hamdallah, not a Hamas ally, was an indication of disharmony within the Palestinian Authority. The fall of Egypt’s Mr. Morsi is a major loss for Hamas, with its Brotherhood ties.
Iran’s government was initially critical when talk of a coup was in the air in Cairo and called on the Egyptian army to respect the democratic will. After the coup, Iran’s Foreign Minister expressed hopes for an agreement to help meet the needs of the Egyptian people.
The 1979 Iranian revolution was inspired by the writings of Sayid Qutb, a prominent member of the Muslim Brotherhood in the 1960s. However, the Shia Iranian regime has often clashed with the Sunni Brotherhood, and Mr. Morsi had criticized Iran for its support of the Assad regime in Syria.
The Libyan government does not seem to have taken an official position yet on the latest developments in Egypt. In a seeming sign of support, the country had lent $2-billion (U.S.) to the Egyptian central bank since Mr. Morsi’s election, and struck an agreement in April to ship $1.2-billion worth of crude oil from Tripoli to Cairo on interest-free credit for a year. But some citizens have taken to the streets in celebration of Mr. Morsi’s downfall.
Since the 2011 demise of former dictator Moammar Gadhafi, Libya has been rife with violence from various militia factions, including some Islamist groups. The Muslim Brotherhood-affiliated party, the Justice and Construction Party, is the second-largest in the national congress.
The long-standing monarchy here finances Muslim Brotherhood organizations in several countries, including Tunisia, Egypt and Libya. Yet it also sent a congratulatory message to Egypt’s new interim leader, Adly Mansour.
The conservative fundamentalist monarchies of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates managed to avoid the democratic uprisings of the Arab Spring. Although Saudi Arabia financially backed Egyptian democracy because of political pressure from the West, the Saudis have objected to democratic ideals trumping Koranic sharia law. They have never been comfortable with the Egyptian revolution in general and essentially welcomed Mr. Morsi’s overthrow.
Syria’s dictatorship under Bashar al-Assad, which is at war with Islamist and other rebel groups on its own soil, has welcomed the military coup in Egypt. The Muslim Brotherhood has challenged the Alawite President’s hold on power with his secular Baathists (the same party that formerly governed Iraq).
After its 2011 revolution, which helped spark the Arab Spring, Tunisia became governed by a moderate Islamist party called al-Nahda (Renaissance). It was inspired by the Muslim Brotherhood in the 1960s, but is not formally linked. It has condemned the coup as undemocratic.
Turkey’s government, itself under pressure from massive street protests, reacted negatively to the military’s coup. Its less-extremist Islamist leadership is not directly tied to the Muslim Brotherhood.