As inflation heats up, a key question is how much of the recent price increases stem from temporary factors, such as the Olympics, and how much represents longer-lasting shifts in the prices we pay for stuff.
February's consumer price index released last week showed the core index, which strips out volatile items like fruit and gasoline, accelerated 2.1 per cent from a year ago from a 2-per-cent increase in January. This measure is closely watched by the Bank of Canada, which sets monetary policy with an aim of keeping inflation at the 2-per-cent mark.
The puzzle is the degree to which temporary factors are influencing consumer prices - and whether last month's increase was a one-month blip, or a harbinger of things to come.
"Inflation stickiness is something the BoC will be mindful of when deciding how quickly to unwind the stimulus," Bank of Montreal said.
Some of last month's inflationary pressure came from transitory effects, such as higher accommodation prices amid last month's Winter Olympics - something the central bank is sure to bear in mind.
But broad price increases for everything from tuition to sugar are trickling into the economy. And that may continue as the economy recovers - and governments hike user fees to control deficits.
"The story of bumps in user-fee components such as auto insurance, tuition increases, transits fares, ATM fees, etc., will continue to have an impact as governments close deficits and financial institutions pay for writedowns and impending regulation requirements," said Sheryl King, head of Canadian economics and strategy at B of A Merrill Lynch in a report.
In March, fares among Ottawa buses and Toronto-area GO transit will go up. "And, the list of fee rises goes on."
Some of the price pressures may also stem from rising commodity prices. Tim Hortons, for example, boosted prices in much of Canada late last year, citing higher commodity prices.
Wages too, have been surprisingly sturdy, Bank of Canada Governor Mark Carney said in a speech last month. The "stickiness" of core inflation is "likely related to the resilience in wage growth," he said.
And wage growth has since picked up. Average hourly wages rose to 2.4 per cent in February from a year ago, accelerating from the previous month's 1.8-per-cent year-over-year gain.
Books and pet food are another hot area, and one that may be affected by currency movements, noted BMO. "These increases may simply be a lagged response to the currency's earlier weakness," it said.
Mortgage interest costs have been an important dampener of inflation over the past year. But those costs, too, are expected to grow as banks hike lending rates.
Yet not everything is getting pricier. The strong Canadian dollar remains a key cooling factor for inflation, and another element the central bank will consider. The currency has risen 20 per cent in the past year against its U.S. counterpart, and is now trading close to parity, driving down the cost of imports. In many cases, price decreases lag currency movements, but the persistent strength of the dollar suggests prices for some items like books and greeting cards should come down.
Here is a list of which prices are up the most in the past year, and which have fallen:
Cereal products (excluding infant food): +5.1 per cent
Preserved fruit and fruit preparations: +5.6 per cent
Canned vegetables and other vegetable preparations: +12.6 per cent
Sugar and confectionery: +8.6 per cent
Telephone services: +5 per cent
Pet food: +8.5 per cent
Car insurance premiums: + 7.9 per cent
Rail, highway bus and other intercity transportation: + 9.3 per cent
Health care services: + 4.5 per cent
Tuition fees: + 4.1 per cent
Ham and bacon: -2.1 per cent
Pasta: -5 per cent
Potatoes: -21.7 per cent
Mortgage interest cost: -5.8 per cent
Natural gas: -22.8 per cent
Women's clothing: -8.7 per cent
Air transportation: -9.5 per cent
Home entertainment equipment, parts and services: -8.0 per cent
Car rentals: -4.5 per cent
Investor Education: Productivity as explained by Gary Rabbior