Bombardier’s own history is punctuated by foreign acquisitions. It purchased plane manufacturer Short Brothers PLC from the British government in 1989, and DaimlerChrysler’s rail unit Adtranz in 2001.
“Everything boils down to our geographical situation. When you have such a small market, you can’t stay local. If you want to grow, you have to go the world,” he said. He adds Quebec is no different than other small countries such as Finland or the Netherlands, out of which Nokia Corp. and Koninklijke Philips Electronics NV grew, respectively. “You don’t have a choice,” Mr. Beaudoin says.
It is an assessment so evident it may seem commonplace today, and yet Quebeckers picked up early on the importance of opening up to the world. They endorsed the Canada-U.S. free-trade agreement wholeheartedly, notably in the industrious Beauce region that is so closely tied to the United States. And with the push by former premier Jean Charest, Quebec also spearheaded the trade negotiations that last fall led to an accord in principle over liberalizing trade between Canada and Europe.
“As soon as Quebeckers venture outside of the province, they often feel, for linguistic reasons, that they are in a foreign country. For them, the Ontario, the American, or even the British markets are not so different in that respect. That has given them a broader vision of the world,” says Louis Hébert, professor of strategy at the business school HEC Montreal.
“It is a nice contradiction. Quebec has less entrepreneurs and exhibits less of an entrepreneurial spirit than other provinces. But the entrepreneurs we do have possess a global vision,” Prof. Hébert says.
Alain Bouchard recounts that when he started in business, he wanted to build a conglomerate in the style of the late Paul Desmarais, whom he admired. But Mr. Bouchard and his three partners quickly realized that they could not excel at everything. So they gave up on a number of ventures, from telephone recycling to auto parts. However, Mr. Bouchard never abandoned his dream of setting foot on every continent, even as he started his convenience-store empire, which now boasts $35.5-billion in annual revenue.
Mr. Bouchard recalls the chilly reception he received at an investor conference in Toronto when he evoked the idea of buying an American chain. “They felt we would fall flat on our face, like so many other Canadian retailers had before us, and our stock didn’t move for a year,” he says.
After the United States, Couche-Tard looked for opportunities in Asia (too many changing rules) and South America (no openness to a partnership with family empires) before landing big in Europe.
While Europe, notably France, has always attracted Quebec entrepreneurs, such as the Lemaire brothers who founded paper giant Cascades Inc., and the Desmarais family, not all succeeded there.
In 2007, Quebecor World abandoned the European operations that former CEO Pierre Karl Péladeau had patiently built after failing to restructure its printing activities, which contributed in no small way to the company’s misery.
A long-term perspective
There is no misery in sight at CGI Group’s annual meeting in the posh oval room at the Ritz-Carlton hotel in Montreal. The memory of losing a lucrative U.S. government contract after the botched rollout of its Obamacare website has almost faded, and this shareholders’ reunion has all the appearance of a love-in.
“Over the last 20 years, we have doubled in size every three years,” says executive chairman Serge Godin, beaming at the centre of the stage as shareholders applaud him.
In Quebec, Mr. Godin is the all-around champion of acquisitions. He has concluded over 70 deals since he co-founded the company in 1976. CGI grew out of necessity: The Montreal-based company had to beef up its operations so it wouldn’t miss out on contracts from large clients. This was especially true when multinationals started contracting out their IT systems and requested a global rollout of their outsourcing.
But if companies such as CGI have grown to become global champions, it is because of what Mr. Godin calls “continuity in management.” That continuity, he argues, comes from the long-term perspective allowed by multiple-voting shares – shares chided by corporate governance experts, where entrepreneurs and their families can retain control of a company even though their capital ownership has been diluted through successive stock offerings.
“The average turnover for a CEO at the head of a widely held company is three years. How do you think you can successfully compete on the world stage and conclude major transactions in such a short time span?” Mr. Godin asks in an interview.
And Mr. Godin, like many Quebec executives, won’t quit any time soon, as CGI now aims to double its size in five to seven years. “People ask me ‘When will you stop?’ In fact, we just won’t.”