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Noise about the population peril is getting louder. Whether the subject is feeding the planet or fuelling the planet, or even wrecking the planet with carbon emissions, the seed of worry that underlies the general anxiety is demographic expansion. We believe that there are just too many people, especially in poorer countries – but what if the reverse were true? What if the main problem that the global economy will face in 2050 is not starving millions but a shortage of workers? What if the great population crisis on the horizon is not an explosion but an implosion?