Skip to main content
Complete Olympic Games coverage at your fingertips
Your inside track on the Olympic Games
Enjoy unlimited digital access
$1.99
per week for 24 weeks
Complete Olympic Games coverage at your fingertips
Your inside track onthe Olympics Games
$1.99
per week
for 24 weeks
// //

Chronic wasting disease was first found in Canada in 1996. Since then, it has appeared in deer and elk in Saskatchewan, Alberta and Quebec.

Paul Chiasson/The Canadian Press

The continuing spread of a fatal wildlife disease in Alberta and Saskatchewan has a federal agency recommending a deer cull across a wide swath of the Prairies.

And soon-to-be-published research on chronic wasting disease has raised new fears about whether the illness could infect humans.

“I would say this question was answered with ‘yes,’ ” said Hermann Schaetzl, a veterinary scientist at the University of Calgary.

Story continues below advertisement

Dr. Schaetzl’s work was discussed in a recent report from the Canadian Agri-Food Policy Institute, which advises the federal government on agriculture policy. Earlier this month, the institute concluded that in addition to human health concerns, the disease’s spread over the past decade threatens Western Canada’s agriculture, wildlife and food security.

“It’s continuing to increase in its spread and the speed of its spread,” said Ted Bilyea, the institute’s strategy officer.

Alberta sees spike in rare parasitic disease spread by coyotes, foxes and maybe your dog

Canadian wildlife at risk are facing continued population declines and multiple threats, report finds

Chronic wasting disease affects animals such as deer, caribou, moose and elk, attacking nervous systems with universally fatal results. Like mad cow disease or Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, it is caused by prions – misshapen proteins that can persist in the environment for up to a decade, able to transfer their shape to healthy proteins.

It was first found in Canada in 1996. Since then, it has appeared in deer and elk in Saskatchewan, Alberta and Quebec.

In 2019, Alberta found 11 per cent of animals submitted by hunters tested positive, up from 7 per cent in previous years. It was also found in moose for the first time.

Maps in the report show that in 2008 the disease was limited to isolated outbreaks in Alberta and Saskatchewan. Now, it’s considered well-established throughout Alberta’s southeast quarter and Saskatchewan’s southern half.

The report also discussed an experiment conducted on macaque monkeys, considered the closest animal analog to humans.

Story continues below advertisement

In 2006, German scientists began feeding macaques with meat from animals infected with the disease. Because it can take years for the disease to show, the monkeys weren’t euthanized and tested until two years ago.

The first tests were ambiguous. But Dr. Schaetzl, who helped conduct confirmatory tests, said it became clear the monkeys had developed low-level infections.

“The more we did, the more we could confirm the macaques were infected.”

Although Dr. Schaetzl’s work is still being peer-reviewed, it has been presented in conferences and is widely discussed among disease experts.

“I was shocked when we first learned of the results,” said Neil Cashman, a leading prion expert at the University of British Columbia. “It’s absolutely confirmative that this happened – you could give macaques a prion disease through oral consumption of contaminated meat.”

Because the disease is so new and takes so long to develop, Dr. Cashman said there could already be people suffering from a human form of chronic wasting disease.

Story continues below advertisement

“[For] many people with a spinal cord syndrome, it wouldn’t even occur to the treating neurologist that this could be a prion disease,” he said. “It’s going to take some education and alertness to even think of the diagnosis.”

To keep tainted meat out of the food supply, Saskatchewan and Alberta require deer and elk farmers to test every animal that dies on their farms, including slaughtered animals. If the disease is found on an Alberta farm, the herd is depopulated and the farmer is prohibited from restocking with animals susceptible to it.

There have been no cases of cattle catching the disease from wild animals.

“It’s easy to go down a doomsday scenario but I don’t think we’re there yet,” said Dr. Keith Lehman, Alberta’s provincial veterinarian. “I think it’s low-risk.”

He points out macaques may be close to humans, but they’re still a different species.

Still, Mr. Bilyea warns chronic wasting disease threatens Alberta’s wildlife. It’s already shrinking Montana deer herds.

Story continues below advertisement

It also threatens hunters – especially those who depend on game to fill the freezer. The report warns of dire consequences if the disease gets into caribou, a threatened species in the mountains and a staple for many northern First Nations.

“The southern range [of caribou] is pretty much the northern range for our survey,” Mr. Bilyea said. “If [prions] pass through that, then we have a genuine food security problem for our northern people.”

The report’s first recommendation is the creation of a deer-depopulated buffer zone to separate caribou range from infected animals.

“We don’t have any buffer zone,” Mr. Bilyea said. “It’s not a very pleasant idea, but this is not a very pleasant topic.”

Alberta has previously tried deer culls in an effort to keep the disease confined to Saskatchewan. But Dr. Lehman said it might be time to try again.

“It’s worth considering,” he said. “I think it’s justified.”

Story continues below advertisement

Chronic wasting disease also threatens the reputation of Canadian agriculture.

A 2003 outbreak of mad cow disease in northern Alberta damaged Canadian food exports for years. Norway has already passed regulations prohibiting the import of Canadian hay and straw from jurisdictions with chronic wasting disease.

Dr. Cashman said he no longer eats deer or elk.

“I hear the alarm bells going off,” he said.

“I would have expected a human case to emerge in the U.S. before Canada. But on the weight of evidence, I think it’s not only not impossible, it’s kind of expected at this point.”

Our Morning Update and Evening Update newsletters are written by Globe editors, giving you a concise summary of the day’s most important headlines. Sign up today.

Your Globe

Build your personal news feed

  1. Follow topics and authors relevant to your reading interests.
  2. Check your Following feed daily, and never miss an article. Access your Following feed from your account menu at the top right corner of every page.

Follow topics related to this article:

View more suggestions in Following Read more about following topics and authors
Report an error
Due to technical reasons, we have temporarily removed commenting from our articles. We hope to have this fixed soon. Thank you for your patience. If you are looking to give feedback on our new site, please send it along to feedback@globeandmail.com. If you want to write a letter to the editor, please forward to letters@globeandmail.com.

Welcome to The Globe and Mail’s comment community. This is a space where subscribers can engage with each other and Globe staff. Non-subscribers can read and sort comments but will not be able to engage with them in any way. Click here to subscribe.

If you would like to write a letter to the editor, please forward it to letters@globeandmail.com. Readers can also interact with The Globe on Facebook and Twitter .

Welcome to The Globe and Mail’s comment community. This is a space where subscribers can engage with each other and Globe staff. Non-subscribers can read and sort comments but will not be able to engage with them in any way. Click here to subscribe.

If you would like to write a letter to the editor, please forward it to letters@globeandmail.com. Readers can also interact with The Globe on Facebook and Twitter .

Welcome to The Globe and Mail’s comment community. This is a space where subscribers can engage with each other and Globe staff.

We aim to create a safe and valuable space for discussion and debate. That means:

  • Treat others as you wish to be treated
  • Criticize ideas, not people
  • Stay on topic
  • Avoid the use of toxic and offensive language
  • Flag bad behaviour

If you do not see your comment posted immediately, it is being reviewed by the moderation team and may appear shortly, generally within an hour.

We aim to have all comments reviewed in a timely manner.

Comments that violate our community guidelines will not be posted.

UPDATED: Read our community guidelines here

Discussion loading ...

To view this site properly, enable cookies in your browser. Read our privacy policy to learn more.
How to enable cookies