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After years of delays and pushback on ride-hailing, B.C. is officially joining the ranks of jurisdictions across North America and around the world in allowing the practice.

On Jan. 23, Uber and Lyft were approved to operate in the Lower Mainland, bringing services one step closer to launching in the Vancouver area. A pair of Canadian companies, Kater and ReRyde had their applications rejected by the Passenger Transportation Board.

Ride-hailing regulations took effect in September, but vehicles still aren’t on the road. B.C.’s Minister of Transportation and Infrastructure Claire Trevena had said she expected the services would launch by Christmas; Premier John Horgan had said he wouldn’t consider it a government failure if that didn’t happen.

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Here’s a detailed look at the companies set to operate, the view from taxi companies and how the rollout of these services has played out in other cities across the continent.


How ride-hailing works

Like taxis, ride-hailing services are designed to get you from one destination to another. But there are some key differences:

Download an app: After downloading a company’s app on your phone, you’ll typically be required to create a profile and store a credit card number on file. Unlike with taxi services, no payment transaction occurs in the vehicle. Some companies offer a one-time trip discount code to encourage registrations.

Taking a ride: When you’re ready to use the service, make sure to have your GPS turned on and enter your destination. You’ll then be given a price estimate based on driver availability and demand, followed by the approximate time it will take for your ride to arrive. Apps will typically show you in real time where your driver is, plus their name, rating, licence plate number and vehicle make and model.

Ratings: Most services use a five-point scale for ratings. While a perfect score is rare, Lyft defines anything above 4.8 as “awesome” and suggests improving if you fall below that mark. (Those with consistently low scores are at risk of deactivation.) In the days after launch, don’t be surprised to see more perfect and lower scores due to a minimal number of trips. The evaluations work both ways: Passengers are also rated by drivers.

The ride-hailing companies and where they’ll operate

Uber is one of the companies set to launch in Vancouver.

Darryl Dyck/The Globe and Mail

Companies were allowed to begin applying for a ride-hailing licence on Sept. 3, but the Passenger Transportation Board (PTB)'s approval process has taken longer than initially planned.

Once they launch, the services will be required to charge a minimum rate of between $3.35 and $3.50 per ride, a similar base to when you take a taxi. So far, 19 companies have applied for licences. Here’s a look at some of them:

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Uber: The U.S. ride-hailing giant plans to begin its operations in Vancouver and will launch as soon as it receives a licence from the city and purchases insurance from ICBC.

Lyft: Uber’s biggest competitor will announce where it will operate in the Lower Mainland once its licences are in place.

Green Coast: The first ride-hailing company to receive a licence to operate, Green Coast will provide services around Whistler as well as Tofino, on Vancouver Island.

TappCar: Originally launched in Edmonton, TappCar hopes to roll out services in all regions of the province except northern B.C. Besides Alberta, it also operates in Manitoba.

Kabu: The Richmond-based company, which had operated in a legal grey area within the Chinese community since launching in 2016, halted its ride-hailing operations in September as it seeks a formal licence. It plans to provide services via a mini-program within the Chinese social platform WeChat as well as through a downloadable app for non-Chinese customers.

Rejected applications: Kater, ReRyde and Lucky To Go all saw their applications denied by the PTB. Kater, a Vancouver company which briefly operated as a hybrid app-based transportation service last year, hoped to eventually be in place across the province. ReRyde, which operates in Manitoba, had sought to launch services on Vancouver Island and the Okanagan – the same application regions as Lucky To Go.

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Why taxi companies are opposed and how they’re responding

Taxis wait to pick up passengers at Vancouver International Airport.

DARRYL DYCK/The Canadian Press

While ride-hailing companies will be able to operate with no geographical restrictions, cab companies will continue to face limits on where they can operate in Metro Vancouver. The taxi lobby is criticizing both this and the decision to place no cap on the number of drivers Uber and Lyft can hire, unlike the limit on the number of cab licences.

In December, Metro Vancouver mayors voted to expedite the creation of a single business licence for ride-hailing companies to operate across the region. The B.C. Taxi Association thinks that’s a good idea – “provided our members are given the same privilege.”

In early September, a group of nine taxi companies launched a last-ditch legal effort to challenge rules they say amount to “destructive competition.” But Ms. Trevena, the province’s Transportation Minister, says she doesn’t expect the request to the B.C. Supreme Court to delay the launch of ride hailing.

Some municipalities have also thrown their support behind the taxi industry. Surrey Mayor Doug McCallum vowed to deny ride-hailing companies business licences, but B.C.’s Transportation Ministry said the PTB has the sole authority to regulate the supply and boundaries.

Will these services make my commute longer?

Studies in U.S. cities have shown that Uber and Lyft increase traffic congestion, as people who normally walk, cycle or take public transit instead opt for ride-hailing.

In San Francisco, researchers found that ride-hailing services accounted for 50 per cent of the rise in congestion between 2010 and 2016. That figure jumped to 73 per cent within the city’s downtown financial district.

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If Vancouver’s high rate of transit riders increasingly turns to ride hailing, it could create congestion problems like those experienced in San Francisco, said Alex Bigazzi, an assistant professor in civil engineering and planning at the University of British Columbia.

The City of Vancouver has responded by implementing an anti-congestion levy of 30 cents for every ride-hailing trip originating or ending in the downtown area between 7 a.m. and 7 p.m.

For its part, the PTB plans to monitor ride-hailing performance data and traffic patterns and could consider implementing a cap on fleet sizes or measures such as congestion pricing in the future.

How ride-hailing has been received elsewhere

April, 2019: Taxi drivers in Montreal protest new legislation to deregulate the industry.

Ryan Remiorz/The Canadian Press

Uber and Lyft have been increasingly hit with further regulations as governments respond to often long-standing complaints from advocates. And in Quebec, taxi drivers are taking to the streets over a provincial bill.

Canada

Over the summer, Toronto’s city council voted in favour of mandatory training requirements for drivers who work for ride-hailing services or taxi companies, bringing it in line with a number of major cities. That’s a reversal of a 2016 decision that faced scrutiny after a young man was killed in a collision; his Uber driver was subsequently charged with dangerous driving.

Quebec’s cab drivers conducted rotating strikes in September to protest proposed provincial legislation that would put an end to traditional taxi permits. The deregulation measures would also allow taxis to set rates based on demand like Uber (Lyft doesn’t currently operate in Quebec).

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United States

May, 2019: Protesters block an intersection near Uber's corporate headquarters in San Francisco.

JOSH EDELSON/AFP/Getty Images

The mayor of Seattle recently announced a plan that would see the city add a per-ride fee of 51 US cents on Uber and Lyft, with those revenues directed in part toward affordable housing and transit. The plan, opposed by both companies, would also mandate a minimum wage for drivers plus benefits. Lyft said it supports a minimum-earnings guarantee, but called the measure a “regressive tax” and said the city should instead turn to congestion pricing.

In New York, Uber is suing the city over rules limiting how much time ride-hailing drivers can spend driving in the city without any passengers. It’s also battling a rule put in place last year that imposed a limit on the number of ride-hailing vehicles.

California’s plan to impose a minimum wage and other protections for ride-hailing drivers has prompted Uber to propose a $21-per-hour minimum wage for drivers, a figure that’s lower than the amount mandated in New York City. A proposed class-action filed in California argues Uber is misclassifying its drivers as independent contractors, rather than employees.

Commentary and analysis

Gary Mason: Political noise accompanies B.C.'s arrival in the ride-hailing century

Saul Klein: Ride-hailing services will disrupt B.C.'s taxi industry. That’s a good thing for all involved

Erez Aloni: Uber will (finally) come to B.C. But the province took a wrong turn on several important issues



With reports from Frances Bula, Ian Bailey, Mike Hager, Oliver Moore, The Canadian Press and Reuters.



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