The Liberals under Justin Trudeau have won a comfortable majority government after the longest and costliest federal election campaign in Canadian history.
Conservative Leader Stephen Harper then stepped down, ending almost 10 years in power.
Mr. Harper did not say that directly but John Walsh, president of the Conservative Party, released this statement late Monday: "I have spoken to Prime Minister Stephen Harper and he has instructed me to reach out to the newly-elected parliamentary caucus to appoint an interim leader and to the national council to implement the leadership selection process pursuant to the Conservative Party of Canada constitution."
At 2 a.m. ET, the Liberals were elected or leading in 185 seats – 15 more than needed to form a majority government.
That compared to 100 for the Conservatives, 42 for the NDP, 10 for the Bloc Québécois and one for the Green party. If those numbers hold, it means the Bloc failed to get the 12 seats necessary for official party status in the new Commons and that the Greens failed to add a seat to their leader's lone tally.
HOW THE PARTY LEADERS FARED
Party leaders Stephen Harper, Justin Trudeau, Tom Mulcair and Elizabeth May were all elected in their respective ridings, while Gilles Duceppe of the Bloc Québécois lost.
WHAT A LIBERAL GOVERNMENT MEANS
Who is the real Justin Trudeau? Here is an in-depth profile of Canada's next prime minister from The Globe's Ian Brown.
Are there enough Liberal stars to form a quality cabinet? "The short answer is yes," John Ibbitson writes. He notes the Liberals are "particularly deep" in Ontario, where a number of the party's notable candidates were successful in getting elected.
The Liberal Party offered a starkly different vision for the economy than the incumbent Conservatives. The party has said it would run short-term budget deficits in order to increase government spending on public infrastructure. Bank of Montreal chief economist Douglas Porter said a Liberal win would provide a short-term lift for the economy in 2016, The Globe's Barrie McKenna reports.
THE RESULTS IN ATLANTIC CANADA
The Liberal Party got off to a blistering start in Atlantic Canada, sweeping all 32 ridings. Here are some of the key results:
- The Liberals' Seamus O'Regan, who was host of CTV's Canada AM for a decade, defeated NDP incumbent Ryan Cleary in St. John's South–Mount Pearl.
- Sean Fraser of the Liberals was elected in Central Nova, the riding being vacated by Tory MP Peter MacKay.
- The Liberals' Andy Fillmore defeated incumbent Megan Leslie of the NDP in the riding of Halifax.
- Long-time NDP MP Peter Stoffer was defeated by the Liberals' Darrell Samson in Sackville–Preston–Chezzetcook.
THE RESULTS IN QUEBEC
The Liberals saw large gains in Quebec, where they won only seven of 75 ridings in the last federal election. The NDP suffered a sharp reversal from 2011, when the party rode an "Orange Wave" in the province to Official Opposition status.
- The Liberals' Marc Garneau was elected in Notre-Dame-de-Grâce–Westmount.
- Former Liberal Party leader Stéphane Dion won in Saint-Laurent.
THE RESULTS IN ONTARIO
The Liberal Party had a dominant showing in Ontario. Here are some key results from the province:
- Finance Minister Joe Oliver lost in Eglinton–Lawrence.
- Immigration Minister Chris Alexander, who was criticized during the campaign for the government's response to the Syrian refugee crisis, was defeated in Ajax by his Liberal opponent.
- NDP candidate Olivia Chow was defeated in Spadina–Fort York by Adam Vaughan of the Liberals.
- The Liberals' Bill Blair, the former police chief of Toronto, was elected in Scarborough Southwest.
- The Conservatives lost in the ridings of Etobicoke–Lakeshore, Etobicoke Centre and Etobicoke North in Toronto's suburbs. Mr. Harper had recently campaigned in the area.
- Tory cabinet minister Tony Clement was re-elected in Parry Sound–Muskoka.
THE RESULTS IN SASKATCHEWAN AND MANITOBA
The Conservatives took the majority of seats in Saskatchewan. The results in Manitoba were more evenly split among the Tories and Liberals.
THE RESULTS IN ALBERTA
The Conservatives saw their best results in Alberta, just months after the NDP won a provincial election there.
- Jason Kenney took a comfortable victory in Calgary Midnapore.
- Rona Ambrose was elected by a sizeable margin in Sturgeon River–Parkland, as was Michelle Rempel in Calgary Nose Hill.
THE RESULTS IN B.C.
The three main parties all won multiple seats in British Columbia, with the Liberals making significant inroads.
- Green Party Leader Elizabeth May won in Saanich–Gulf Islands, but her party failed to win a second seat in this election.
- The NDP's Nathan Cullen won by a comfortable margin in Skeena–Bulkley Valley.
- Minister of International Trade Ed Fast was re-elected in Abbotsford.
THE RESULTS IN THE TERRITORIES
The Liberals won in each of the three territories.
WHO WAS FAVOURED TO WIN?
The Liberal Party exceeded expectations on Monday night. Before the results started streaming in, The Globe's election forecast, based on recent polls and historical data, said there was an 81-per-cent chance the Liberals would get the most seats, but only an 18-per-cent chance of a Liberal majority.