President Vladimir Putin took a leading role in the latest tests of Russia's strategic nuclear arsenal, the most comprehensive since the 1991 Soviet collapse, the Kremlin said on Saturday.
The exercises, held mostly on Friday, featured prominently in news reports on state television which seemed aimed to show Russians and the world that Mr. Putin is the hands-on chief of a resurgent power.
Tests involving command systems and all three components of the nuclear "triad" – land and sea-launched long-range nuclear missiles and strategic bombers – were conducted "under the personal leadership of Vladimir Putin," the Kremlin said.
An RS-12M Topol intercontinental ballistic missile was launched from the Plesetsk site in northern Russia, and a submarine test-launched another ICBM from the Sea of Okhotsk, the Defence Ministry said.
Long-range Tu-95 and Tu-160 bombers fired four guided missiles that hit their targets on a testing range in the northwestern Komi region, it said.
"Exercises of the strategic nuclear forces were conducted on such a scale for the first time in the modern history of Russia," the Kremlin statement said.
"Vladimir Putin gave a high evaluation to the combat units and crews and the work of the Armed Forces General Staff, which fulfilled the tasks before them and affirmed the reliability and effectiveness of Russia's nuclear forces."
The exercises included tests of communications systems and "new algorithms" for command and control, it said.
Russia says it is modernizing a nuclear arsenal that was largely created during the Cold War and will continue to use nuclear weapons as a key deterrent.
In the 2010 New START treaty, Russia and the United States set lower numerical ceilings on the weapons tested in the exercise.
But Mr. Putin has made clear further cuts depend, among other things, on Washington assuaging his concerns about anti-missile defences it is deploying, including a European shield Russia says will make it more vulnerable.
Russian and American leaders say nuclear war between the Cold War rivals is now unthinkable.
But critics say Mr. Putin – in power since 2000 and back as military commander-in-chief since his return to the Kremlin in May after four years as prime minister – is exaggerating potential threats from the West to bolster support at home.