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A grim picture exists for Canadian multiculturalism in its ability to promote social inclusion. My recent research in Montreal, Vancouver and Toronto suggests that although second- and third-generation ethnic minorities are as, or more, educated than the dominant group, they trail in securing high-wage, skilled, education-intensive jobs. For visible ethnic minorities, securing these jobs is even harder.

This has more to do with sociological reasoning than policy. When it comes to hiring, often the dominant group will choose an individual from the dominant group, who is perceived to share a greater social trust. Canada's multicultural policies project an important intent, but fail to tangibly address the Achilles heel of social inclusion -- fostering social trust among all members of the community.

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