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Vancouver, Jan. 21, 2020: A young man holds a sign bearing photographs of Michael Kovrig and Michael Spavor outside B.C. Supreme Court where Huawei chief financial officer Meng Wanzhou was attending a hearing.

Darryl Dyck/The Canadian Press/The Canadian Press

Kovrig and Spavor: The basics

Who they are: Michael Kovrig is a former Canadian diplomat who was in China working as an analyst and researcher for a think tank called the International Crisis Group. Michael Spavor is an entrepreneur who has worked to promote business and cultural ties between North Korea and the West. On Dec. 10, 2018 – days after Canada’s arrest of Huawei executive Meng Wanzhou (more on her later) – they were separately detained in China and accused of breaking national-security laws. They have been in Chinese custody ever since.

What China accuses them of: The men are charged with espionage, but it took more than 18 months after their arrests for those charges to be formally laid. They deny the allegations. Each was tried in secret in March of 2021 (March 19 for Mr. Spavor, March 22 for Mr. Kovrig) with little notice given to the Canadian government. No verdict has yet been given in either case: In China’s judicial system, verdicts can be delayed for years, but nearly 100 per cent of tried cases end in conviction. Each Canadian faces a maximum penalty of life in prison if convicted.

What their detention is like: Mr. Kovrig is being held in Beijing and Mr. Spavor in Dandong, and neither one has had much access to the outside world. The Globe’s Asia correspondent visited their prisons a year after their detention, learning they were interrogated for months in solitary confinement-like conditions; guards initially seized Mr. Kovrig’s glasses; and their lights were kept on 24 hours a day. China’s COVID-19 epidemic later made them even more unreachable, even by Canadian consular staff, because prisons were closed to visitors. Correspondence obtained by The Globe added more details about how the men have been keeping busy and what books and materials they’ve sought.

A who’s who

The Chinese side

Huawei executive Meng Wanzhou leaves her Vancouver home for a court date in January, 2020.

Jennifer Gauthier/Reuters/Reuters

Meng Wanzhou: The chief financial officer of Huawei, a Chinese telecom company, Ms. Meng was arrested at Vancouver’s airport in December, 2018. She is accused by U.S. prosecutors of lying to financial institutions as part of a scheme to circumvent U.S. sanctions on Iran and do business there through a subsidiary. The U.S. Justice Department has also indicted Huawei itself and some of its subsidiaries, accusing them of a decade-long scheme of bank fraud, money laundering and obstruction of justice. Ms. Meng denies the allegations and is fighting an extradition order in court, though she lost a ruling in May, 2020, where a judge decided that the crimes she’s accused of in the United States would also be illegal if committed in Canada.

Huawei CEO Ren Zhengfei gives an interview in Shenzhen in December, 2019.

Theodore Kaye/The Globe and Mail/The Globe and Mail

Ren Zhengfei: Ms. Meng’s father founded Huawei, became a billionaire as he expanded its reach abroad and is now aiming to make it the dominant global player in 5G wireless networks. Its technology is under intense global scrutiny by the United States and its allies over fears that it could be used for Chinese espionage. Mr. Ren has pressed Canada for his daughter’s release, and offered to help arrange Mr. Kovrig and Mr. Spavor’s freedom in exchange.

Cong Peiwu: As ambassador to Canada, Mr. Cong is a key figure in Beijing’s efforts to win Ms. Meng’s release and convince Canada that Huawei’s technology is safe.

Wang Yi: China’s Foreign Minister has talked several times with his Canadian counterpart about Mr. Kovrig and Mr. Spavor.

The Canadian side

Dominic Barton gives an interview to The Canadian Press in 2016.

Paul Chiasson/The Canadian Press/The Canadian Press

Dominic Barton: Canada’s ambassador to China took his job in the middle of the Kovrig-Spavor saga after his predecessor, John McCallum, was fired in January, 2019, for suggesting to Chinese-language media that Ms. Meng had a chance of avoiding extradition to the United States. Mr. Barton is now the detainees’ main advocate in China.

Marc Garneau: Canada’s Foreign Affairs Minister has been trying to secure Mr. Spavor and Mr. Kovrig’s release in talks with the Chinese and U.S. governments.

Vina Nadjibulla: Mr. Kovrig’s wife has been advocating for the men’s release, coming forward in June of 2020 with letters from her husband in which he described how he’s trying to stay resilient and hopeful. “We cannot at the moment allow the real suffering of these Canadians to continue,” she says.

'Please continue to hope and believe that you will be free one day.' That's the messsage Vina Nadjibulla, Michael Kovrig's wife, wants him to hear after being in Chinese custody since 2018. The Globe and Mail

What could happen next?

The Michaels’ case: Since Joe Biden became U.S. president, Ottawa has been counting on him to mend relations with China that were damaged by his predecessor, Donald Trump. Mr. Biden and Vice-President Kamala Harris have been sympathetic in talks with Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, but haven’t committed to a course of action for the imprisoned Canadians until their administration’s review of Sino-American relations is complete, senior federal officials told The Globe.

The Meng case: A prisoner swap – like the one that some Chrétien-era politicians and former staffers have suggested – would be a complicated matter for Mr. Trudeau, who says he won’t trade Ms. Meng for the Canadians because it would undermine the independence of Canada’s judiciary. But decisions on extradition are still ultimately political, because they need to be approved by the Justice Minister. A more direct solution would be for American prosecutors to drop the charges or make a plea agreement with Ms. Meng, and according to sources who’ve spoken with The Globe, Ms. Meng’s lawyers were in talks with the U.S. Justice Department about that.

More reading

Spavor’s wish list: Documents show how Canadians detained in China are seeking hope and comfort

What life is like for Canadians Michael Spavor and Michael Kovrig

Inside the final hours that led to the arrest of Meng Wanzhou

Compiled by Globe staff

With reports from Nathan VanderKlippe, Steven Chase, Robert Fife and The Canadian Press

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