Canada's new bank CEOs are making less money than their predecessors as banks cut salaries and reduce CEO pensions in the face of shareholder pressure to curb super-sized executive pay.
A report on bank CEO pay by Toronto compensation consulting firm McDowall Associates shows base salaries for the new CEOs of Bank of Nova Scotia, Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce and Toronto-Dominion Bank are all down 33 per cent compared with the outgoing CEOs' salaries, while the base salary for the new CEO of Royal Bank of Canada is down 13 per cent compared with his predecessor.
Targeted total direct compensation – which includes grants of share units and stock options – is down between 11 per cent and 25 per cent for all four CEOs, the report shows. For example, the analysis shows Scotiabank CEO Brian Porter earned $8-million in total direct targeted compensation (excluding pension costs) in 2014, which is 25 per cent less than the $10.7-million that predecessor Rick Waugh earned in total targeted compensation in 2013.
Bernie Martenson, senior consultant with compensation firm McDowall Associates and previously vice-president of compensation at Bank of Montreal, said it is too soon to conclude that the banks have permanently lowered CEO pay because it is common for CEOs to get raises as they spend more time in the job.
But she said a number of current pay practices, including reducing the proportion of pay awarded in stock options, suggest overall pay is likely to be lower for the new CEOs over the long-term.
"You would naturally think there would be a difference between someone of long tenure and someone who is new in the role," Ms. Martenson said.
"But I think the reduction of stock options in the last few years is starting to have an impact in terms of wealth accumulation. If you were to look out eight or 10 years for these new CEOs and compare the value of their total equity to that of their predecessors, I think it would be lower."
Bank CEOs are still well compensated of course, but restraint is increasingly evident. Ms. Martenson points to the CEO pension plans at all four banks. Toronto-Dominion Bank CEO Ed Clark, for example, has the largest pension of departing CEOs at $2.5-million a year, while his replacement, Bharat Masrani, will have a maximum possible pension of $1.35-million a year when he retires.
At Scotiabank, Mr. Waugh's pension plan was capped at a maximum of $2-million a year at age 63, while Mr. Porter is eligible for a maximum pension of $1.5-million available at 65. Royal Bank's Gord Nixon had a $2-million maximum pension at 60, while his successor David McKay will have a maximum pension of $700,000 at 55, increasing to a final maximum of $1.25-million at 60.
Retired CIBC chief executive Gerry McCaughey had no cap on the size of his pension, but his pensionable earnings that formed the base for his pension calculation were capped at $2.3-million. His successor, Victor Dodig, has his annual pension capped at $1-million.
A number of shareholder groups – including the Canadian Coalition for Good Governance – have urged companies to reform pension plans because they create expensive funding obligations that last for decades.
Michelle de Cordova, director of corporate engagement and public policy at mutual fund group NEI Ethical Funds, said bank CEOs continue to have very generous pensions "that most people can only dream of," but she sees a sense of moderation in the trends.
Ms. de Cordova, whose fund has lobbied the banks to curb their executive pay and link CEO pay increases to those of average Canadians, hopes the pay reductions in 2014 are not a temporary trend.
"It does suggest that there is some sense that the levels that pay and benefits had reached were perhaps too high, and boards have decided they need to do something about that," she said. "I'd say they are still very generous arrangements, but it does seem that there is a sense that there needs to be some moderation, which is welcome."
The report says all five of Canada's largest banks have cut the proportion of stock options they grant their CEOs in recent years.
Banks previously decided how much equity they wanted to grant CEOs each year, and split the amount evenly between grants of stock options and grants of share units. In 2014, however, stock options accounted for 20 per cent of total new equity grants at the median for the five banks, while share units accounted for 80 per cent of new equity grants.
Ms. Martenson said banks faced pressure from regulators to reduce stock options following the financial crisis in 2008 because they were deemed to encourage executives to take risks by quickly pushing up the company's share price to reap a windfall from quickly exercising options. Share units, which track the value of the company's shares and pay out in cash, are considered less risky because they must be held for the long-term or even until retirement, creating incentives to build long-term growth.