Skip to main content
The Globe and Mail
Support Quality Journalism.
The Globe and Mail
First Access to Latest
Investment News
Collection of curated
e-books and guides
Inform your decisions via
Globe Investor Tools
per week
for first 24 weeks

Enjoy unlimited digital access
Cancel Anytime
Enjoy Unlimited Digital Access
Get full access to
Just $1.99per week for the first 24weeks
Just $1.99per week for the first 24weeks
var select={root:".js-sub-pencil",control:".js-sub-pencil-control",open:"o-sub-pencil--open",closed:"o-sub-pencil--closed"},dom={},allowExpand=!0;function pencilInit(o){var e=arguments.length>1&&void 0!==arguments[1]&&arguments[1];select.root=o,dom.root=document.querySelector(select.root),dom.root&&(dom.control=document.querySelector(select.control),dom.control.addEventListener("click",onToggleClicked),setPanelState(e),window.addEventListener("scroll",onWindowScroll),dom.root.removeAttribute("hidden"))}function isPanelOpen(){return dom.root.classList.contains(}function setPanelState(o){dom.root.classList[o?"add":"remove"](,dom.root.classList[o?"remove":"add"](select.closed),dom.control.setAttribute("aria-expanded",o)}function onToggleClicked(){var l=!isPanelOpen();setPanelState(l)}function onWindowScroll(){window.requestAnimationFrame(function() {var l=isPanelOpen(),n=0===(document.body.scrollTop||document.documentElement.scrollTop);n||l||!allowExpand?n&&l&&(allowExpand=!0,setPanelState(!1)):(allowExpand=!1,setPanelState(!0))});}pencilInit(".js-sub-pencil",!1); // via darwin-bg var slideIndex = 0; carousel(); function carousel() { var i; var x = document.getElementsByClassName("subs_valueprop"); for (i = 0; i < x.length; i++) { x[i].style.display = "none"; } slideIndex++; if (slideIndex> x.length) { slideIndex = 1; } x[slideIndex - 1].style.display = "block"; setTimeout(carousel, 2500); } //

It would be a bit gauche for the Caisse de dépôt et placement du Québec to dish out I-told-you-sos to investors who bought into Bombardier Inc.'s recent share offering. But this week's slide in the company's stock price, to a 22-year-low, suggests that the pension-fund manager's unsuccessful push for a governance overhaul at Bombardier was a harbinger of the current crisis of confidence facing the plane and train maker.

The Caisse ended up buying just a smattering of the nearly 500 million subordinated voting shares Bombardier issued in a February sale that raised $1.1-billion for the cash-depleting transportation concern. The pension giant passed on becoming the lead investor on the issue after Bombardier's controlling family balked at its demands, which reportedly included reducing the votes attached to the company's multiple-voting shares to six from 10.

Had it accepted the Caisse's conditions, the Bombardier-Beaudoin family would have seen its voting control slip below 50 per cent, a development that would have loosened the grip of patriarch Laurent Beaudoin and his relatives. It might have reassured investors that newly named chief executive Alain Bellemare and the board of directors had a free hand to run the firm.

Story continues below advertisement

But news of the Caisse's clash with the Bombardier clan also got plenty of backs up in corporate Quebec, where the 10-to-1 ratio between multiple and subordinated voting shares has been the preferred means of maintaining control and, hence, keeping a roster of global-sized head offices in the province. Power Corp., Alimentation Couche-Tard Inc., the Jean Coutu Group Inc., CGI Group Inc. and Quebecor Inc. are just a few of the big Quebec players whose controlling shareholders rely on the 10-to-1, dual-class share structure. Without it, there would be a glut of empty office space in the Greater Montreal area.

Takeovers are sensitive topics in most jurisdictions. But there's an added layer of sensitivity in Quebec, where the existence of a francophone business class is still a comparatively recent phenomenon and the sale of such iconic companies as Alcan and Cirque du Soleil creates fears that Quebec Inc.'s glory days are behind it. If any institution should understand this touchiness, it's the Caisse.

That's not to suggest the pension-fund manager wasn't right to demand changes at Bombardier. The company's chronic underperformance and repeated dismissal of criticism warranted an intervention. Had Bombardier taken the Caisse's advice, investors might now be showing more patience.

Defenders of a dual-class share structure say it encourages long-term thinking by management and the board by shielding them from the tyranny of quarterly earnings targets. It gives entrepreneurs time to realize their often complicated visions without being distracted by market diktats. If investors don't like it, they shouldn't buy subordinated voting stock in the first place. Besides, as the appetite for recent technology IPOs with dual-class share structures suggests, most investors care more about a good story than how many votes they get.

There was a time when Bombardier fit into that category. Without Mr. Beaudoin's vision and discipline, Bombardier might still just be a snowmobile maker in the Eastern Townships. With him on board (he married the boss's daughter), investors experienced a ride of a lifetime that saw their shares hit $26 in 2000.

Once Bombardier entered the big leagues, however, there was too much at stake to bet everything on a dream. Mr. Beaudoin could never accept the advice of his hand-picked replacements as CEO – Bob Brown and Paul Tellier – that taking on Boeing and Airbus was a suicide mission. They considered the 100-plus-seat C Series aircraft a bet the company couldn't win.

Neither Mr. Brown nor Mr. Tellier lasted very long in the top job. They soon found that their power wasn't commensurate with the title. And the market knew they were placeholders until Mr. Beaudoin considered his son Pierre ready for the top job, which he got in 2008.

Story continues below advertisement

The market lost confidence in Pierre Beaudoin long ago. Bombardier's recent share issue was oversubscribed not because investors had a change of heart. Many were just looking to make a quick buck, as the stock rallied with Mr. Beaudoin's replacement by Mr. Bellemare. But the latter may discover that his marge de manoeuvre is no greater than that of the two previous non-family CEOs.

The Caisse was merely applying its own guidelines in requesting that Bombardier reduce the number of votes attached to its Class A shares. Had it succeeded, it might have given investors reason to believe the company had truly turned over a new leaf.

It would also have sent most of Quebec Inc. into a panic.

Your Globe

Build your personal news feed

  1. Follow topics and authors relevant to your reading interests.
  2. Check your Following feed daily, and never miss an article. Access your Following feed from your account menu at the top right corner of every page.

Follow the author of this article:

View more suggestions in Following Read more about following topics and authors
Report an error Editorial code of conduct
Tickers mentioned in this story
Due to technical reasons, we have temporarily removed commenting from our articles. We hope to have this fixed soon. Thank you for your patience. If you are looking to give feedback on our new site, please send it along to If you want to write a letter to the editor, please forward to

Welcome to The Globe and Mail’s comment community. This is a space where subscribers can engage with each other and Globe staff. Non-subscribers can read and sort comments but will not be able to engage with them in any way. Click here to subscribe.

If you would like to write a letter to the editor, please forward it to Readers can also interact with The Globe on Facebook and Twitter .

Welcome to The Globe and Mail’s comment community. This is a space where subscribers can engage with each other and Globe staff. Non-subscribers can read and sort comments but will not be able to engage with them in any way. Click here to subscribe.

If you would like to write a letter to the editor, please forward it to Readers can also interact with The Globe on Facebook and Twitter .

Welcome to The Globe and Mail’s comment community. This is a space where subscribers can engage with each other and Globe staff.

We aim to create a safe and valuable space for discussion and debate. That means:

  • Treat others as you wish to be treated
  • Criticize ideas, not people
  • Stay on topic
  • Avoid the use of toxic and offensive language
  • Flag bad behaviour

If you do not see your comment posted immediately, it is being reviewed by the moderation team and may appear shortly, generally within an hour.

We aim to have all comments reviewed in a timely manner.

Comments that violate our community guidelines will not be posted.

UPDATED: Read our community guidelines here

Discussion loading ...

To view this site properly, enable cookies in your browser. Read our privacy policy to learn more.
How to enable cookies