Sudan’s military seized power Monday, dissolving the transitional government hours after troops arrested the prime minister, and thousands flooded the streets to protest the coup that threatened the country’s shaky progress toward democracy.
Security forces opened fire on some of them, and three protesters were killed, according to the Sudan Doctors’ Committee, which also said 80 people were wounded.
The takeover, which drew condemnation from the United Nations, the United States and the European Union, comes more than two years after protesters forced the ouster of long-time autocrat Omar al-Bashir and just weeks before the military was supposed to hand the leadership of the council that runs the country over to civilians.
The UN Security Council scheduled an emergency closed meeting on the Sudan coup late Tuesday afternoon. The United States, United Kingdom, France, Ireland, Norway and Estonia requested the emergency consultations.
After the early morning arrests of Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok and other senior officials, thousands demonstrated in the streets of the capital, Khartoum, and its twin city of Omdurman. They blocked streets and set fire to tires as security forces used tear gas to disperse them.
As plumes of smoke rose, protesters could be heard chanting, “The people are stronger, stronger!” and “Retreat is not an option!” Social media video showed crowds crossing bridges over the Nile to the centre of the capital. The U.S. Embassy warned that troops were blocking parts of the city and urged the military “to immediately cease violence.”
Pro-democracy activist Dura Gambo said paramilitary forces chased protesters through some Khartoum neighbourhoods.
Records from a Khartoum hospital obtained by The Associated Press showed some people admitted with gunshot wounds.
The head of the military, Gen. Abdel-Fattah Burhan, announced on national TV that he was dissolving the government and the Sovereign Council, a joint military and civilian body created soon after al-Bashir’s ouster to run the country.
Burhan said quarrels among political factions prompted the military intervention. Tensions have been rising for weeks over the course and the pace of the transition to democracy in Sudan, a nation in Africa linked by language and culture to the Arab world.
The general declared a state of emergency and said the military will appoint a technocratic government to lead the country to elections, set for July 2023. But he made clear the military will remain in charge.
“The Armed Forces will continue completing the democratic transition until the handover of the country’s leadership to a civilian, elected government,” he said. He added that the constitution would be rewritten and a legislative body would be formed with the participation of “young men and women who made this revolution.”
The Information Ministry, still loyal to the dissolved government, called his speech an “announcement of a seizure of power by military coup.”
As darkness fell in Khartoum, barricades were still burning and occasional gunshots could be heard, said Volker Perthes, the UN special envoy for Sudan, at a briefing in New York.
President Joe Biden was briefed on Sudan in the morning, said White House spokesperson Karine Jean-Pierre. She added that the U.S. was “deeply alarmed at reports of a military takeover” and called for the immediate release of the prime minister and other officials.
“The actions today are in stark opposition to the will of the Sudanese people and their aspirations for peace, liberty and justice,” Jean-Pierre said.
The Biden administration is suspending $700-million in emergency economic aid to Sudan that had been allocated to help the transition, said State Department spokesman Ned Price. He called it a “pause,” and urged the civilian-led government be immediately restored.
UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres “strongly condemns the ongoing military coup d’etat in Khartoum and all actions that could jeopardize Sudan’s political transition and stability,” said his spokesman, spokesman Stephane Dujarric.
Guterres also called for the release of the government officials, the spokesman said, as did the African Union. EU foreign affairs chief Joseph Borrell tweeted that he was following the events with the “utmost concern.”
Michelle Bachelet, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, warned that Sudan could slip backward, urging the military to free the officials, withdraw from the streets and settle differences with the transitional government through dialogue.
Since al-Bashir, who remains in prison, was forced from power, Sudan has tried to rid itself of the international pariah status it held under the autocrat. The country was removed from the U.S. list of state supporters of terrorism in 2020, opening the way for badly needed foreign loans and investment.
But Sudan has struggled with the shock of a number economic reforms called for by international lending institutions.
In recent weeks, there have been concerns the military might be planning a takeover, and in fact there was a failed coup attempt in September. Tensions only rose from there, as the country fractured along old lines, with more conservative Islamists who want a military government pitted against those who toppled al-Bashir in protests. In recent days, both camps have staged demonstrations.
Amid the standoff, the generals have called repeatedly for dissolving Hamdok’s transitional government – and Burhan, who leads the ruling Sovereign Council, said frequently the military would only relinquish power to an elected government, an indication the generals might not stick to the plan to hand leadership of the body to a civilian some time in November. The council is the ultimate decision-maker, though the Hamdok government is tasked with running Sudan’s day-to-day affairs.
As part of efforts to resolve the crisis, Jeffrey Feltman, the U.S. special envoy to the Horn of Africa, met with Sudanese officials over the weekend, and a senior Sudanese military official said he tried unsuccessfully to get the generals to stick to the agreed plan.
The arrests began a few hours later, said the official, who spoke on condition of anonymity because he was not authorized to brief media. The official said the prime minister and the others were being detained in a military camp outside Khartoum.
Perthes said he and Feltman, in parallel meetings with political and military leaders in recent weeks, had tried to urge a return to dialogue and against a coup, which he said would “squander the achievements of the first two years of the transition.”
State Department spokesman Price said Feltman warned Burhan and others that any unconstitutional changes in the government would have consequences.
The military has been emboldened in its dispute with civilian leaders by the support of tribal protesters, who blocked the country’s main Red Sea port for weeks. The two most senior military officials, Burhan and his deputy Gen. Mohammed Hamdan Dagalo, also have close ties with Egypt and the wealthy Gulf nations of Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.
The first reports of a possible military takeover emerged before dawn, and the Information Ministry later confirmed them, saying Hamdok and several senior government figures had been arrested. Internet access was widely disrupted and the state news channel played traditional patriotic music.
Hamdok’s office denounced the detentions on Facebook as a “complete coup.” It said his wife was also arrested.
Sudan has suffered other coups since gaining its independence from Britain and Egypt in 1956. Al-Bashir came to power in 1989 in one such takeover, which removed the country’s last elected government.
Among those detained were senior government figures and political leaders, including the information and industry ministers, a media adviser to Hamdok and the governor of the state that includes the capital, according to the senior military official and another official. Both spoke on condition of anonymity because they were not authorized to brief the media.
After news of the arrests spread, the main pro-democracy group and two political parties appealed to the people to take to the streets. The Communist Party urged workers to protest what it described as a “full military coup” orchestrated by Burhan.
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