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Their chances in the Senate were vastly improved by the come-from-behind victory of Senator Susan Collins of Maine, seen here in Bangor, Maine on Nov. 4, 2020.

ELIZABETH FRANTZ/Reuters

Republicans, buoyed by an unexpectedly strong performance by U.S. President Donald Trump in key battlegrounds, grew increasingly confident on Wednesday that they could maintain narrow control of the Senate and make a considerable dent in the size of the Democrats' House majority.

Their chances in the Senate were vastly improved by the come-from-behind victory of Senator Susan Collins of Maine, a New England centrist largely written off as a loss before election day. Ms. Collins’s resounding performance in a state also carried by former vice-president Joe Biden defied national trends and she avoided a protracted fight involving the state’s ranked-choice voting system by clearing a 50-per-cent threshold of support.

Democrats, who had entered the night bullish about their chances, had flipped just two seats, in Colorado and Arizona. And with the loss of Senator Doug Jones, D-Ala., they were still two or three seats short of the gains they would need to control the chamber.

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Their hopes increasingly rested on Georgia, where at least one race was headed for a January runoff with a Democrat as frontrunner. Votes in the state’s other contest were still being counted, but Democrats were hopeful that Senator David Perdue, a Republican, would have to contend with a runoff as well.

If they prove successful, it would provide Democrats with a shot at fighting Republicans to a draw for control of the Senate in a bloody and expensive rematch just two weeks before inauguration day. Two Democratic victories there would split the Senate, 50-50, and if Mr. Biden prevailed, his vice-president, Kamala Harris, could cast tiebreaking votes to give Democrats de facto control.

Republicans had scored key Senate victories in Iowa, Montana, South Carolina and Texas, where Democratic challengers fell well short of expectations despite spending record-breaking sums. They likewise believed they were strongly positioned to hold on in North Carolina as well, where Senator Thom Tillis was considered one of the party’s most endangered senators this year, although the race was still too close to call with mail-in ballots streaming in.

“If my math is correct, if we win in North Carolina and Maine, I am still the offensive co-ordinator,” Senator Mitch McConnell, R-Ky., told reporters on Wednesday, referring to his position as majority leader.

The fight carried heavy consequences for whoever wins the White House, given that the Senate holds sway over judicial nominations and the legislative agenda, with the power to advance or frustrate a president’s plans. Even as they continued to game out possibilities, Democrats emerged on Wednesday decidedly downcast.

“I was hoping we would sweep to victory with a number of Senate wins,” John Hickenlooper, Colorado’s former Democratic governor who defeated Senator Cory Gardner, said on MSNBC. “You know we were cautiously optimistic, but it’s not the level of excitement I was hoping to wake up to.”

In the House, Democrats were on track to secure the 218 seats needed to maintain the majority they established in 2018. But their predictions of a second consecutive wave powered by antipathy for Mr. Trump had been dashed by Wednesday morning. Instead, Democrats had lost a handful of historically red rural and suburban seats in Oklahoma, South Carolina, New Mexico and Florida and were praying that a late deluge of mail-in votes would minimize further loses in places they once thought safe.

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Republicans' run of victories also promised to replenish somewhat the number of women in their conference, which was decimated in Democrats' 2018 sweep.

“I’ve heard for months from the pollsters and the media about how Republicans were going to lose more seats and cling to shrinking coalitions,” Representative Kevin McCarthy of California, said at an upbeat news conference in Washington promoting his conference’s new women. “We expanded this party that reflects America and looks like America.”

He argued that Democrats had been punished by voters for having “wasted their majority,” while Republicans had been aided by “President Trump’s monumental help.”

The accumulating results suggested that Mr. McCarthy could wield considerably more leverage in the House next term, particularly if Republicans hold the Senate. He quickly announced a run for minority leader and was expected to consolidate support. A smaller Democratic majority thinned of some moderates could also empower the party’s progressive wing to exercise more force.

The battle for the Senate was being waged on even friendlier turf for Republicans. Although they were defending 23 states, compared with just 12 for Democrats, almost all of them were places that Mr. Trump carried in 2016.

Democrats still managed to win in Colorado, a rare blue state occupied by a Republican, and Arizona, where Mark Kelly, a former astronaut, beat Senator Martha McSally, handing her a second Senate defeat in two years.

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But Tommy Tuberville, the former Auburn football coach, easily won back deep-red Alabama from Senator Doug Jones. In Iowa, Senator Joni Ernst’s win over Theresa Greenfield, a Democrat with roots in the state’s farming community, scuttled Democrats' hopes for a key pickup. And in Montana, Steve Daines beat back a challenge from the state’s popular Democratic governor, Steve Bullock.

In North Carolina, Mr. Tillis, one of the Republican Party’s most vulnerable incumbents, had opened a lead of nearly 100,000 votes early Wednesday against Cal Cunningham, a Democrat and Iraq War veteran who had led in polls for much of the year. But the state accepts mail-in ballots postmarked by Election Day until Nov. 12, making a final call premature.

Democrats still remained hopeful about the races in Georgia. Raphael Warnock, a Democrat, was headed for a January runoff against Senator Kelly Loeffler, the appointed Republican, in a special election to replace Senator Johnny Isakson, who retired in late 2019, citing health problems. Jon Ossoff, a 33-year-old documentary filmmaker, was in a tight race to unseat Perdue, which could also end up in a runoff if neither cleared the 50-per-cent threshold required under Georgia law to win outright.

Both parties had other outstanding targets, but they were considered stretches. For Republicans, the best option was Michigan, where John James, a Black Iraq War veteran who ran for the Senate unsuccessfully in 2018, was trying to unseat Senator Gary Peters. And Democrats still believed they had an outside shot of defeating Senator Dan Sullivan in Alaska.

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