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  • Canada is imposing sanctions on 17 Saudi nationals in connection to journalist Jamal Khashoggi’s death, Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland said Thursday at the G20 summit in Buenos Aires. The sanctions do not mention Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, and Ms. Freeland didn’t directly answer a question about whether Canada believes he was behind the Oct. 2 killing, as U.S. intelligence agencies have concluded.
  • The U.S. government has targeted the same 17 people – the 15-person kill team, the Saudi consul-general in Turkey and a former top aide to the Crown Prince – under its Magnitsky human-rights law. President Donald Trump has been under pressure to do more, but he ruled out other punitive measures earlier this month and said Washington would support the Saudis even if the Crown Prince knew about the killing.
  • Meanwhile, the U.S. Senate is taking a tougher stand against the Saudis. In a bipartisan resolution on Nov. 28, which passed 63-37, senators supported legislation calling for an end to American involvement in the Saudi-led war in Yemen. The vote showed a significant number of Republicans were willing to break with Mr. Trump to express their deep dissatisfaction with Saudi Arabia and with the U.S. response to Mr. Khashoggi’s brutal killing.

Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi, shown in Bahrain in 2015.

Hasan Jamali/The Associated Press

Who was Jamal Khashoggi?

Jamal Khashoggi, 59, was a Saudi journalist and critic of Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, who has led a widely publicized drive to reform the conservative Sunni monarchy but has also presided over the arrests of activists and businessmen. Mr. Khashoggi left Saudi Arabia for the U.S. last year in a self-imposed exile, saying he feared retribution for his criticism of Riyadh over the Yemen war and its crackdown on dissent. He lived in Virginia and wrote columns for The Washington Post.

His last Post column, submitted by his translator the day after he was reported missing and published in The Globe and Mail on Oct. 19, was uncannily prophetic about the issues surrounding his disappearance. Mr. Khashoggi wrote about the Arab world’s need for freedom of expression, and denounced governments who “have been given free rein to continue silencing the media at an increasing rate.” He called for transnational media institutions to foster reform, like Radio Free Europe during the Cold War. “We suffer from poverty, mismanagement and poor education,” the column’s final sentences read. “Through the creation of an independent international forum, isolated from the influence of nationalist governments spreading hate through propaganda, ordinary people in the Arab world would be able to address the structural problems their societies face.”

What happened on Oct. 2? A visual guide

According to surveillance footage obtained by

U.S. and Turkish media, the disappearance of

journalist Jamal Khashoggi on Oct. 2 was preced-

ed by a 15-person unit from Saudi Arabia arriving

in Istanbul and followed by frenzied activity that

remains the subject of controversy.

OCTOBER 1

Oct. 1:Khashoggi travels to Istanbul to

pick up documents at the Saudi consulate.

His plan is to marry his Turkish fiancée,

Hatice Cengiz.

1

Oct. 2, 3:28 a.m.:The first of two small jets

carrying members of a Saudi team arrives at

Ataturk Airport.

2

BRITAIN

Khoshaggi

London

POLAND

Private jet 1

1

FRANCE

ITALY

Istanbul

SPAIN

TURKEY

Med. Sea

IRAN

IRAQ

2

Departure:

Oct. 1, 11:40 p.m.

Arrival:

Oct. 2, 3:28 a.m.

Riyadh

S. ARABIA

0

450

KM

Note: Flight paths are approximate. All times are local.

Oct. 2, 5:05 a.m.:The Saudi group checks in

at Mövenpick and a nearby hotel.

 

Oct. 2, 9:40 a.m. and 10:50 a.m.: The Saudis

leave the hotel in two groups just over an

hour apart

3

Oct. 2, 1:14 p.m.:Khashoggi is seen enter

ing the Saudi consulate; his fiancée waits

outside.

4

Oct. 2, 4:00 p.m.:Half a dozen vehicles

leave the consulate; two vehicles with diplo-

matic plates enter the nearby consul’s resi-

dence.

5

Saudi

consul’s

residence

5

ISTANBUL

Levent

Tennis

Club

Mövenpick

Hotel

3

Consulate of

Saudi Arabia

4

0

50

M

OCTOBER 2-3

Oct. 2:Over the course of late afternoon and

evening, the Saudi group leaves the hotels

and the country on two private jets.

6

Oct. 2

Oct. 3

Private jet 1

Istanbul

6

Private jet 2

TURKEY

Med. Sea

IRAQ

IRAN

Cairo

Dubai

EGYPT

UAE

Riyadh

0

450

S. ARABIA

KM

MURAT YÜKSELIR AND JOHN SOPINSKI / THE

GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: TILEZEN; OPEN

STREETMAP CONTRIBUTORS; HIU; PLANE FINDER;

BING MAPS; THE NEW YORK TIMES; BBC; BBC

TURK; ASSOCIATED PRESS PHOTO

According to surveillance footage obtained by

U.S. and Turkish media, the disappearance of

journalist Jamal Khashoggi on Oct. 2 was preced-

ed by a 15-person unit from Saudi Arabia arriving

in Istanbul and followed by frenzied activity that

remains the subject of controversy.

OCTOBER 1

Oct. 1:Khashoggi travels to Istanbul to

pick up documents at the Saudi consulate.

His plan is to marry his Turkish fiancée,

Hatice Cengiz.

1

Oct. 2, 3:28 a.m.:The first of two small jets

carrying members of a Saudi team arrives at

Ataturk Airport.

2

BRITAIN

Khoshaggi

London

POLAND

Private jet 1

1

FRANCE

ITALY

Istanbul

SPAIN

TURKEY

Med. Sea

IRAN

IRAQ

2

Departure:

Oct. 1, 11:40 p.m.

Arrival:

Oct. 2, 3:28 a.m.

Riyadh

SAUDI

ARABIA

0

450

KM

Note: Flight paths are approximate. All times are local.

Oct. 2, 5:05 a.m.:The Saudi group checks in

at Mövenpick and a nearby hotel.

 

Oct. 2, 9:40 a.m. and 10:50 a.m.: The Saudis

leave the hotel in two groups just over an

hour apart

3

Oct. 2, 1:14 p.m.:Khashoggi is seen enter

ing the Saudi consulate; his fiancée waits

outside.

4

Oct. 2, 4:00 p.m.:Half a dozen vehicles

leave the consulate; two vehicles with diplo-

matic plates enter the nearby consul’s resi-

dence.

5

Saudi

consul’s

residence

5

ISTANBUL

Levent

Tennis

Club

Mövenpick

Hotel

3

Consulate of

Saudi Arabia

4

0

50

M

OCTOBER 2-3

Oct. 2:Over the course of late afternoon and

evening, the Saudi group leaves the hotels

and the country on two private jets.

6

Oct. 2

Oct. 3

Istanbul

Private jet 1

6

Private jet 2

TURKEY

Med. Sea

IRAQ

IRAN

Cairo

Dubai

EGYPT

UAE

Riyadh

THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: TILEZEN; OPENSTREETMAP CONTRIBUTORS; HIU

0

450

S. ARABIA

KM

MURAT YÜKSELIR AND JOHN SOPINSKI / THE

GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: TILEZEN; OPEN

STREETMAP CONTRIBUTORS; HIU; PLANE FINDER;

BING MAPS; THE NEW YORK TIMES; BBC; BBC

TURK; ASSOCIATED PRESS PHOTO

According to surveillance footage obtained by U.S. and Turkish media, the disappearance of

journalist Jamal Khashoggi on Oct. 2 was preceded by a 15-person unit from Saudi Arabia

arriving in Istanbul and followed by frenzied activity that remains the subject of controversy.

OCTOBER 1

Oct. 1:Khashoggi travels to Istanbul to pick up documents at the Saudi consulate. His plan is to

marry his Turkish fiancée, Hatice Cengiz.

1

Oct. 2, 3:28 a.m.:The first of two small jets carrying members of a Saudi team arrives at Ataturk

Airport.

2

0

450

BRITAIN

RUSSIA

KM

London

POLAND

GERMANY

UKRAINE

1

FRANCE

Black Sea

ITALY

Istanbul

SPAIN

TURKEY

Mediterranean Sea

IRAN

IRAQ

2

Departure:

Oct. 1, 11:40 p.m.

Arrival:

Oct. 2, 3:28 a.m.

SAUDI

ARABIA

ALGERIA

EGYPT

Riyadh

Khoshaggi

Private jet 1

Note: Flight paths are approximate. All times are local.

Oct. 2, 5:05 a.m.:The Saudi group checks in at Mövenpick and a nearby hotel.

 

Oct. 2, 9:40 a.m. and 10:50 a.m.:The Saudis leave the hotel in two groups just over an hour apart

3

4

Oct. 2, 1:14 p.m.:Khashoggi is seen entering the Saudi consulate; his fiancée waits outside.

Oct. 2, 4:00 p.m.:Half a dozen vehicles leave the consulate; two vehicles with diplomatic plates

enter the nearby consul’s residence.

5

Saudi consul’s

residence

Black Sea

5

Consulate of Saudi Arabia

ISTANBUL

Ataturk

Airport

Istanbul

Sea of

Marmara

Levent

Tennis

Club

0

15

KM

Mövenpick

Hotel

3

AKASYALI SK.

Consulate of

Saudi Arabia

4

AKAGAC SK.

0

50

METRES

OCTOBER 2-3

Oct. 2:Over the course of late afternoon and evening, the Saudi group leaves the hotels and the

country on two private jets.

6

THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: TILEZEN; OPENSTREETMAP CONTRIBUTORS; HIU

0

450

RUSSIA

Black Sea

KM

Istanbul

6

TURKEY

IRAN

IRAQ

Cairo

EGYPT

Dubai

Riyadh

Oct. 2

Oct. 3

UAE

Private jet 1

SAUDI

ARABIA

Private jet 2

MURAT YÜKSELIR AND JOHN SOPINSKI / THE GLOBE AND MAIL, SOURCE: TILEZEN; OPEN

STREETMAP CONTRIBUTORS; HIU; PLANE FINDER; BING MAPS; THE NEW YORK TIMES; BBC;

BBC TURK; ASSOCIATED PRESS PHOTO

On Oct. 18, the pro-government Turkish newspaper Sabah published surveillance images showing a man linked to the Saudi Crown Prince’s entourage walking toward the Istanbul consulate at 9:55 a.m., just before Mr. Khashoggi disappeared there. Sabah’s report also showed the same man outside the Saudi consul general’s home, checking out of a Turkish hotel and then leaving Turkey later that day.

The Associated Press

Another image published by Sabah shows the man at the Istanbul airport at 5:58, nearly four hours after Mr. Khashoggi was last seen.

The Associated Press

Turkey vs. Saudi Arabia: The bigger picture

Saudi Arabia is one of the Middle East’s major superpowers, along with Iran, and its foreign investment and political activities extend into all parts of the region – including Turkey, where Saudi investments are a crucial lifeline for Ankara amid trouble with its national currency, the Turkish lira. The prospect of a Saudi-orchestrated killing on Turkish soil has raised tensions between Ankara and Riyadh, but the two sides are walking a fine line of diplomacy over the issue.

Story continues below advertisement

Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan has not directly accused the Crown Prince of being behind the killing, but he has dismissed Riyadh’s attempts to pin the blame on the suspects arrested by Saudi law enforcement. Mr. Erdogan is also pressing for those suspects to be tried in Turkish courts, setting up further complications with the Saudi government, which has said it is conducting its own investigation and will punish those involved.

Oct. 10, 2018: Alyssa Edling, centre, and Thomas Malia, second from right, both with PEN America, join others as they hold signs of missing Mr. Khashoggi during a news conference in front of The Washington Post headquarters.

Jacquelyn Martin/The Associated Press

How the U.S. is reacting

  • Donald Trump: The U.S. President has close ties to the extended Saudi royal family, who have invested millions of dollars in Trump-branded real estate properties in the United States and around the world. Though he has condemned the killing, his statements about who is responsible have been cautious and equivocal: For instance, after speaking with the Saudi king on Oct. 15, Mr. Trump suggested, without offering evidence, that “rogue killers” may have been behind Mr. Khashoggi’s death. He has also rebuffed calls from some in Congress to cancel arms sales to the kingdom.
  • Senate: Legislators, including some Republicans, have been restive about Mr. Trump’s handling of the Khashoggi case. On Nov. 28, they sent a strong signal that they want to punish Saudi Arabia: By a bipartisan 63-37 vote, senators opted to move forward with legislation calling for an end to U.S. involvement in the Saudi-led war in Yemen.
  • Treasury: Washington rarely imposes sanctions on Saudi nationals, but on Nov. 15 it singled out 17 people for their role in the Khashoggi killing: The 15-person kill team, a former top aide to the Crown Prince and the Saudi consul-general in Turkey. The sanctions, which limit access to the U.S. financial system, are being made under the Global Magnitsky Human Rights Accountability Act, which targets perpetrators of serious human rights abuses and corruption.

How Canada is reacting

Relations between Ottawa and Riyadh have been strained since August, when Canada’s Global Affairs Ministry tweeted urging the Saudis to release two female activists detained in the country. The Saudi government responded by expelling Canada’s ambassador to the country, suspending new trade deals, barring the import of Canadian wheat and cancelling scholarships for thousands of Saudi students in Canada.

Using its Magnitsky act, Canada introduced sanctions against 17 Saudi nationals, the same 17 targeted by the U.S. sanctions. Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland announced the sanctions on Nov. 29 at the G20 summit in Buenos Aires. It’s unknown whether any of the 17 actually have any assets in Canada. The sanctions don’t mention the Crown Prince, and Ms. Freeland didn’t directly answer a question about whether Ottawa believes the prince was involved.

The Trudeau government is also pausing new weapons-export permits for Saudi Arabia, but it has not cancelled a $15-billion deal to sell light armoured vehicles to the kingdom. The Prime Minister has been under pressure from the opposition and human-rights groups to scrap the deal, but he has said the penalty for doing that would be “in the billions of dollars.”

Additional reading

Bessma Momani: True leaders must stop the Saudi Crown Prince’s normalization tour

Holmes, Juergensen and Murray: The red line crossed, Jamal Khashoggi’s life cannot be sacrificed for Canada’s economy

Daoud Kuttab: Jamal Khashoggi and speaking truth to power in the Arab world

Globe editorial: Saudi Arabia must explain the disappearance of Jamal Khashoggi


Compiled by Globe staff

With reports from Reuters, Associated Press, Reuters, The Canadian Press and Globe staff

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