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A political struggle over new extradition laws has moved months of protests into strikes and violence. Here’s what you need to know

Protesters hold umbrellas and placards as they gather at Tamar Park during a demonstration on August 5, 2019 in Hong Kong, China. Pro-democracy protesters have continued rallies on the streets of Hong Kong against a controversial extradition bill since 9 June as the city plunged into crisis after waves of demonstrations and several violent clashes.Anthony Kwan/Getty Images

Hong Kong protesters filled public parks and squares in a general strike in order to draw more attention to their demands, including that the semi-autonomous Chinese territory’s leader resign. The strike led to more than 200 flight cancellations at the city’s airport and protesters disrupted subway service during the morning commute. Nevertheless, Hong Kong leader Carrie Lam maintained that she has no plans to resign in the face of the turbulent pro-democracy movement.

The protests, which follows weeks of demonstration that has drawn hundreds of thousands of people opposed to the extradition amendments, reflects growing apprehension about relations with the Communist Party-ruled mainland. Here’s what you need to know.

  • Protesters run after police fired tear gas outside the government headquarters in Hong Kong.PHILIP FONG/AFP/Getty Images

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Why are people protesting?

Opponents of the proposed extradition amendments say the changes would significantly compromise the territory’s legal independence, long viewed as one of the key differences between Hong Kong and mainland China.

Critics believe the legislation would put Hong Kong residents at risk of being entrapped in China’s murky judicial system, in which political opponents have been charged with economic crimes or ill-defined national security transgressions. Opponents say once charged, the suspects may face unfair proceedings in a system where the vast majority of criminal trials end in conviction. The legislation’s opponents include members of legal, business and human rights organizations, as well as scores of ordinary citizens who cherish Hong Kong’s reputation for the rule of law.

Hong Kong’s leader, Carrie Lam, has said that safeguards have been added to the legislation to ensure human rights are protected.

After the Hong Kong protesters spent hours peacefully demonstrating aon Wednesday, things turned violent around 3 p.m., when crowds pushed metal barricades and police fired tear gas and beanbag bullets into the crowd. By 5 p.m., police had subdued the protesters by force.DALE DE LA REY/AFP/Getty Images

A protester washes his face after police fired tear gas into the crowd.ANTHONY WALLACE/AFP/Getty Images

June 12, 2019: Police officers fire tear gas during a demonstration against a proposed extradition bill in Hong Kong.ATHIT PERAWONGMETHA/Reuters

What are the details of the legislation?

Hong Kong currently limits extraditions to jurisdictions with which it has existing agreements and to others on an individual basis. China has been excluded from those agreements because of concerns over its judicial independence and human rights record. The proposed amendments to the Fugitive Offenders Ordinance and the Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters Ordinance would expand the scope of criminal suspect transfers to include Taiwan, Macau and mainland China. Lam has said the changes are necessary for Hong Kong to uphold justice and meet its international obligations. Without them, she said Hong Kong risks becoming a “fugitive offenders’ haven.”

Supporters have pointed to the case of Chan Tong-kai, a Hong Kong man who admitted to Hong Kong police that he killed his girlfriend during a trip to Taiwan. Because Hong Kong and Taiwan don’t have an extradition agreement, he has not been sent to Taiwan to face charges there, though he has been jailed in Hong Kong on money laundering charges.

Hong Kong’s complex relationship to mainland China

June 30, 1997: Chinese president Jiang Zemin greets British prime minister Tony Blair before a bilateral meeting June 30. Hours later, at the stroke of midnight, Britain officially handed Hong Kong over to China and ended 156 years of colonial rule.Choo Youn-Kong/Reuters

Hong Kong was a British colony that was returned to China in 1997 under the framework of “one country, two systems.”

The agreement guaranteed Hong Kong the right to retain its own social, legal and political systems for 50 years. As a result, residents of the semiautonomous territory enjoy far greater freedoms than people on the mainland, such as the freedom to protest or publicly criticize the government.

Nevertheless, the Communist Party exerts influence on the Hong Kong government. Hong Kong voters are not allowed to directly elect their chief executive. Lam was elected in 2017 by a committee dominated by pro-Beijing elites and is widely seen as the Communist Party’s favoured candidate. The Legislative Council, Hong Kong’s parliament, includes a sizable camp of pro-Beijing lawmakers.

Beijing has made substantial efforts in recent years to integrate Hong Kong with the mainland. Last October, China opened the world’s longest sea-crossing bridge, connecting Hong Kong and Macau to the city of Zhuhai in southern Guangdong province. The government has named the three combined locales the “Greater Bay Area,” which it aims to turn into a centre for technological innovation and advanced manufacturing.

How have freedoms been eroding?

July 1, 2017: Chinese President Xi Jinping applauds during the swearing-in ceremony of the new Hong Kong government on the 20th anniversary of the city's handover from British to Chinese rule.Bobby Yip/Reuters

Those in Hong Kong who anger China’s central government have come under greater pressure since Chinese President Xi Jinping came to power in 2012.

The detention of several Hong Kong booksellers in late 2015 intensified worries about the erosion of Hong Kong’s rule of law. The booksellers vanished before resurfacing in police custody in mainland China. Among them, Swedish citizen Gui Minhai is currently being investigated for leaking state secrets after he sold gossipy books about Chinese leaders. In April, nine leaders of a 2014 pro-democracy protest movement known as the “Umbrella Revolution” were convicted on public nuisance and other charges.

In May, Germany confirmed it had granted asylum to two people from Hong Kong who, according to media reports, were activists fleeing tightening restrictions at home. It was the first known case in recent years of a Western government accepting political refugees from Hong Kong.

What’s next for the extradition bill?

While Lam declared to suspend the bill, protesters have pressed on with broader calls for it to be scrapped entirely, along with democratic reforms including the dissolution of the current legislature and an investigation into alleged police brutality.

Crisis in Hong Kong: More reading

Frank Ching: With Hong Kong extradition, who is China targeting?

Editorial: Don’t let China undermine freedom and the rule of law in Hong Kong

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