A month after massive protests ousted Tunisia's longtime dictator, waves of Tunisians are voting with their feet, fleeing the country's political limbo by climbing into rickety boats and sailing across the Mediterranean to Europe.
About 4,000 illegal immigrants have washed up on Italy's southern islands in just a week - an unintended consequence of the "people's revolution" that ousted autocrat Zine El Abidine Ben Ali and inspired the uprisings in Egypt and beyond.
European powers cheered when Tunisia's 74-year-old ruler fled into exile in Saudi Arabia on Jan. 14, but the fallout a month later has tempered their enthusiasm. It has also exposed a dilemma for western countries that allied with repressive leaders in North Africa seen as bulwarks against extremism, and now must build new diplomatic relationships in a still-uncertain political climate.
On Monday, the European Union announced a C258 million ($347 million) aid package to Tunisia from now until 2013, with C17 million ($22.9 million) of that delivered immediately. EU foreign policy chief Catherine Ashton, visiting Tunisia, said the funds were a gift, not a loan.
Meanwhile, Tunisia sternly rejected an Italian offer to send police there to help tackle waves of illegal migrants fleeing political upheaval, most of them landing on the tiny Italian island of Lampedusa
Italian Interior Minister Roberto Maroni - who has called the migration a "biblical exodus"- offered police "contingents, which can patrol the coasts" as well as boats and other equipment and urged the 27-nation European Union to hold a special meeting on immigration strategy.
But Tunisia's Foreign Ministry categorically rejected the offer, expressing "astonishment" about it and saying it would fight any foreign "interference in its domestic affairs or any attack on its sovereignty."
Italy's offer, meanwhile, drew criticism from Germany.
"We should help, we should get involved, but certainly not awaken an impression that Tunisia can't resolve its own affairs," said German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle. "That can only be misunderstood in Tunisia itself after such a proud, great revolution."
The stakes couldn't be higher for the North African nation of 11 million: Not only is it attempting create a multiparty democratic system from scratch after more than half a century of strongman rule, but it's being scrutinized as a bellwether for Arab giant Egypt, where a popular revolt deposed authoritarian President Hosni Mubarak last week.
Under Tunisia's longtime dictator, trying to emigrate to Europe was a crime punishable by fines and prison time. The law is still on the books, but would-be immigrants are taking advantage of the power vacuum to brave choppy Mediterranean waters to reach Lampedusa, 125 kilometres away. The overcrowded boats keep arriving around the clock.
Arrivals over the weekend were detained in a fenced-in soccer field. Hundreds of migrants have been flown to Sicily or the Italian mainland for document checks, and those ineligible for asylum risk deportation. Italian Foreign Minister Franco Frattini was in Tunis to discuss the exodus.
Tunisia was gripped by chaos in the days that followed Mr. Ben Ali's flight, but daily life has largely returned to normal. Stores, markets, gas stations and schools have reopened, and people have returned to work. The marauding gangs of suspected regime loyalists who pillaged homes and businesses have largely melted away.
But plenty of problems remain. Elections that are supposed to take place in about five months have still not been scheduled, and the caretaker government has been hit by waves of resignations. The unpopular foreign minister tendered his resignation on Sunday, just weeks after his predecessor was fired in a purge of ministers with roots in Mr. Ben Ali's feared RCD party.
Hacking away at the RCD, a party that has long had its tentacles wrapped around nearly every aspect of life here, has proven a major stumbling block for the fledgling democracy. Although he officially renounced his party membership, interim Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi was an RCD member and Mr. Ben Ali's premier for the past decade.
Since securing its independence from colonial protector France in 1956, Tunisia has steered a secular, pro-Western course and has been a key ally in the U.S. fight against terrorism, as well as a popular tourist destination for Europeans.
There are questions on whether the banned Ennahdha, or Renaissance party - branded an Islamic terrorist group by Ben Ali but considered moderate by scholars - could become a major political force. Thousands flooded the Tunis airport to lavish a hero's welcome on the party's exiled leader, Rachid Ghanouchi, as he returned last month from nearly two decades in London.
Tunisia is also planning an international conference seeking economic and political support for the changes ahead. Regional Development Minister Nejib Chebbi has said damage during the unrest has cost Tunisia some C2.5 billion ($3.4 billion).