A recent spate of fiery crude-by-rail accidents in North America is renewing questions about the pace of safety measures developed after the 2013 disaster in Lac-Mégantic, Que.
Five oil-train derailments resulted in major fires during the first five months of this year – two near the same Northern Ontario town and three in the United States. In two of the U.S. cases, thick black smoke from the oil fires forced the evacuation of nearby settlements.
Those headline-grabbing accidents are underpinned by a larger number of less serious incidents in both countries, including reports of leaks, derailments and other problems. The number of reported incidents involving trains carrying crude oil rose significantly from 2009 to 2014, corresponding with a rapid overall increase in crude-by-rail shipments. (A drop in global oil prices has slowed crude shipments in recent months.)
Over the past five years, the tally of reported oil-train incidents in the United States rose to 144 in 2014 from just one in 2009. In Canada, the number rose to 56 in 2013 from eight in 2011, the first year petroleum-crude incidents were recorded by the Transportation Safety Board of Canada. The number of Canadian incidents fell to 33 in 2014.
The Globe and Mail analyzed reports compiled by the TSB and the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration in the United States. The Canadian data are current to the end of 2014, while the U.S. data are updated as reports come in and are processed.
Data and news reports show 21 train derailments in North America since 2010 transporting crude oil and resulting in at least a leak. Incidents are ranked in severity based on the presence of fire, explosion, population evacuation or loss of life. Data are current to the end of 2014, which means some less-serious incidents may be missing for 2015.
Crude oil derailments
Incidents include multiple outcomes
Concerns about the dangers of hauling crude oil by rail came to the fore after a 72-car train came loose from its brakes and crashed at high speed into downtown Lac-Mégantic in July, 2013. The burning oil unleashed a massive fireball that destroyed dozens of buildings and killed 47 people.
Three more serious accidents took place later that year. And fiery derailments have persisted even as governments work to bring in new rules aimed at making it safer to move volatile crude oil.
Recent changes in Canada and the United States deal with regular testing of crude oil to determine its volatility, cutting down on train speeds in urban areas and requiring more thorough assessments of routes used to move oil and other dangerous goods.
The two countries also announced new timelines for strengthening the tank cars used to haul crude oil. However, the most stringent of the new tank car standards will not come into effect for 10 more years.
Michael Bourque, president of the Railway Association of Canada, said 2014 was probably the best year for reducing the total number of rail occurrences, “and the trend over the longer term has been very good.” A relative increase in crude-related incidents makes sense, he said, given that crude oil now accounts for a greater proportion of goods that are shipped by rail.
Mr. Bourque noted that the TSB’s reporting requirements became more strict in mid-2014, meaning the reduction in crude-by-rail occurrences for that year might have been more profound under the old rules.
Many of the new safety measures for trains carrying oil and other dangerous goods are not in place yet or are relatively new, Mr. Bourque added. He said he believes the new tank-car standard could have been brought in faster, but “other things moved very quickly.” The industry is also working to invest in track and infrastructure upgrades, he said.
Transport Minister Lisa Raitt said in an e-mail that the government has already removed the least-resistant tank cars from service and is bringing in a new standard with an “aggressive and ambitious timeline.”
The government is also developing rules to limit risk, taking into account a community’s population, rail-traffic density, volume of dangerous goods being moved and other factors, she said.
But Mark Winfield, a professor at York University who has studied Canada’s railway regulations, said there are still a lot of gaps in the system. “There’s still no overall assessment or reflection on what’s the nature of the hazards associated with this kind of traffic: What as a whole do we need to do to manage those risks?” he said.
A spokesman for Canadian National, whose oil trains were involved in the two recent Ontario derailments, said the company did not wait for regulatory change to take steps to improve safety, such as conducting more comprehensive risk assessments and strengthening its practices for securing parked trains. Canadian Pacific said the company has been a long-time and vocal proponent for improved tank car safety and is in favour of the new rules.
For some, the two recent derailments in Northern Ontario demonstrate a need to invest more in infrastructure and consider the impact of long, heavy oil trains on older tracks. The TSB has said track problems may have played a role in both accidents.
Bromont, Que., Mayor Pauline Quinlan said she would also like to see urban-specific speed limits applied more broadly to help prevent fiery derailments outside major cities.
“We’re concerned,” said Ms. Quinlan, who is vice-chair of a committee on rail safety for the Federation of Canadian Municipalities. “We have to face the reality that these incidents are really disastrous.”
– With files from Michael Pereira
_report_number,_date,_month,_year,_city_town,_province_state,_annotation,INITIAL_SUMMARY,_tank_desc,_product,_primary_cause,_derail,_leak,_fire,_explosion,_evacuation,_death_ind,_lives_lost,_severity_index,_severity_index_wieghted,latitude,longitude X-2010110345,11/1/2010,11,2010,Havre,MT,"A BNSF train derailed in a yard in Havre. A DOT-111 tank car carrying crude oil fell on its side, damaging the shell. Crude oil leaked out, but was contained without a fire.",A BNSF train yarding in the railyard facility derailed entrained SHPX 208283 (DOT 111A100W1 tank car) on its side. SHPX 208283 sustained rail burn damage on its side shell with subsequent shell compromise during movement after derailing. The rail burn compromise was located at mid-tank level on the right side near the A-end of SHPX 208283. Commodity spillage from SHPX 208283 was channeled and contained in a fabricated pit with lining applied. The remaining commodity inside SHPX 208283 was transferred into tanker trucks. The product loaded in these tank trucks was transferred into another suitable tank car on 11/18/2010 without further incident. Captured product in the lined pit was vacuumed up for future filtering and recycling. Impacted soil was excavated for appropriate future disposal.,111AW,CRUDE OIL SWEET,Tank Shell - Gouged or Cut,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,48.549999,-109.684089 X-2011120040,12/1/2011,12,2011,Monroe,LA,"When five cars derailed in Monroe, a minor leak occurred between the pressure plate and the liquid valve. It was contained with an absorbent pad.",Five car derailment with three cars on their sides and two cars upright. A small leak between the pressure plate and liquid valve mounting flange on the ADLX 500053 developed and an absorbent pad was used to contain the release. All cars were uprighted with no issues and four are staged for transfer.,111A100W1,NORTH TEXAS SWEET,Liquid Line - Leaked,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,32.509311,-92.119301 R12W0013,1/22/2012,1,2012,Glen Ewen,SK,"A train near Glen Ewen was hit at a public crossing by a pickup truck. The impact caused 24 cars full of crude oil to derail and 14 to flip onto their sides. One punctured tank car released 50,000 litres of crude oil.","CP FREIGHT 696-015, PROCEEDING ON THE ESTEVAN SUBDIVISION, WAS STRUCK BY A PICK-UP TRUCK ON A PUBLIC CROSSING AT MILE 109.96 EQUIPPED WITH SRCS. IT WAS REPORTED THAT THE VEHICLE STRUCK THE 18TH CAR ON THE TRAIN AND AS A RESULT DERAILED 22 CARS, ALL TANK CARS LOADED WITH PETROLEUM CRUDE OIL, UN 1267. IT WAS FURTHER REPORTED THAT TANK CAR TILX 253488 WAS LEAKING PRODUCT. LOCAL POLICE, FIRE DEPARTMENT AND CP OFFICIALS RESPONDED.",111A100ALW,PETROLEUM CRUDE OIL,FAILED TO STOP,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,49.207719,-102.016763 X-2013050098,3/27/2013,3,2013,Parkers Prairie,MN,"Fourteen cars derailed and three were breached during a derailment in Parkers Prairie, leaking about 15,000 gallons (57,000 litres) of Alberta oil sands crude.",3298-23 traveling eastward on detroit lakes sub at 40 MPH. train went into emergency stop inspection found 14 cars derailed and 3 leaking crude oil with approximately 15000 gallons released. Response contractors were called to assist with the clean up efforts.,111A100W1,,Inner Packaging - Ripped or Torn,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,46.152778,-95.325278 R13T0060,4/3/2013,4,2013,White River,ON,"A train travelling between Thunder Bay and Sault Ste. Marie derailed, sending seven tank cars of crude oil and 15 other cars off the tracks. Some of the cars rolled down an embankment, releasing more than 100,000 litres of crude oil.","Canadian Pacific Railway freight train 420-02 was proceeding eastward at 34.9 miles per hour on the Heron Bay Subdivision when it experienced an undesired emergency brake application at Mile 9.16 near White River, Ontario. Subsequent inspection determined that 22 cars (19 loads and 3 empties) had derailed, 7 of which were dangerous goods tank cars loaded with petroleum crude oil (UN 1267). During the derailment, a number of cars rolled down an embankment. Two of the dangerous goods tank cars released approximately 101 700 litres of product, and another non-dangerous goods tank car released approximately 18 000 litres of product. There were no injuries. TSB investigators deployed from Gatineau and Toronto offices.",111A100W1,PETROLEUM CRUDE OIL,BROKEN RIM,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,48.593953,-85.274809 R13W0145,5/21/2013,5,2013,Jansen,SK,"A train derailed in southeastern Saskatchewan after the emergency brakes were used. Five cars of crude oil went off the tracks, spilling more than 91,000 litres.","While proceeding westward on the Sutherland subdivision, CP freight 490-20 experienced an undesired emergency brake application at mile 24.7. Upon inspection, the crew discovered 5 tank cars, load of petroleum crude oil, UN 1267 derailed. It was further reported that tank car DBUX 250440 was leaking product as a result of a puncture. No injuries reported. CP officials responded. TBS investigator (Winnipeg) deployed.",111A100ALW,PETROLEUM CRUDE OIL,BROKEN RAIL - TRANSVERSE/COMPOUND FISSURE,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,51.788274,-104.717262 R13D0054,7/6/2013,7,2013,Lac-Mégantic,PQ,"More than 70 tank cars of crude oil crashed into downtown Lac-Mégantic in the middle of the night, causing a series of major explosions and levelling dozens of buildings. Forty-seven people were killed. Investigators later determined that the train’s hand brakes had not been applied properly, allowing it to slide downhill into the small Quebec town.","Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway reported that train MMA-002 derailed in the town of Lac-MĂŠgantic. Loaded tank cars of crude oil are reported to have exploded and are on fire. Part of the town has been evacuated. TSB investigation team has been deployed.",111A100W1,PETROLEUM CRUDE OIL,,1,1,1,1,1,1,47,5,22,45.580134,-70.8881 R13E0142,10/19/2013,10,2013,Gainford,AB,"A 134-car train pulling into a siding in Gainford derailed because of a sudden application of the emergency brakes. Thirteen cars derailed, and the crew reported seeing sparks and flames. The Transportation Safety Board later later found that there were breaks and other defects in the rail.","While pulling approx. 2000 ft into Gainford siding on the Edson sub, CN Train M30151-18 with 134 cars, experienced an undesired emergency brake application. Inspection revealed cars 13 through 25 had derailed and on their side. Sparks and flames were visible to the crew. DG's involved. No injuries reported. CN and local authorities responded. ",111A100W1,PETROLEUM CRUDE OIL,BROKEN RAIL - TRANSVERSE/COMPOUND FISSURE,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,4,12,53.586606,-114.785561 X-2014010112,10/21/2013,10,2013,Smithboro,IL,Investigators discovered heavy damage to a tank car carrying residue crude oil. A large puncture was discovered and the tank car was later scrapped.,On 10/21/2013 at 05:50 hours personnel in the CSXT Great Lakes Division discovered AFCX 73248 a residue tank car of Petroleum Crude Oil leaking from the liquid and vapor valve. The car was isolated and shipper PBF Holding Company LLC from Reynold DE local agencies and state agencies were notified. CHEMTREC Report number was issued: 2013102100021. Environmental Restoration and Summit Environmental a CSXT emergency response contractor was dispatched to the scene and found that there was heavy damage to car liquid and vapor line valves sheared off and 2-3 inches by 2 feet puncture in car. The issue was identified and corrective actions were communicated to the shipper Keith Dempsey (Telephone #: 403-804-2510). Contractor personnel fixed the problem and cleaned up spilled material. The leak was secured and the car was identified to be scrapped. The incident did not require a special switching move. Cause Code: 298 + 389 NARRI: 5x(1+3+0)x(2+0) = 40,111A100W1,CRUDE OIL SWEET,Liquid Valve; Vapor Valve - Torn Off or Damaged; Torn Off or Damaged,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,38.896158,-89.340632 E-2013120116,11/7/2013,11,2013,Aliceville,AL,A major derailment in Aliceville caused a massive fire that could be seen from more than 16 kilometres away. The crude oil involved in this derailment came from North Dakota and is the same type of oil that exploded in Lac-Mégantic.,The cause of the derailment remains under investigation. Subsequent to the derailment fire and explosions occurred which resulted in damage to identification marking and placarding on all tankcars. AGR is providing the information available at this time which includes an aerial photograph of the derailment site and a summary report. Since the derailment occurred AGR has provided employees and contract resources to extinguish all fires transfer and store all flammable liquids (crude oil) and mitigate environmental damage caused during the derailment. The summary report attached was provided daily to resource trustees associated with response to the derailment as directed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A supplemental report will be provided that provides additional information related to damage and identification of tankcars when the investigation concludes.,DOT-11A-100W1,NORTH TEXAS SWEET,Tank Shell - Ripped or Torn,1,1,1,1,0,0,0,4,7,33.129568,-88.151417 X-2014010238,12/30/2013,12,2013,Casselton,ND,"A train carrying grain derailed in front of another train carrying crude oil, knocking both locomotives and 20 crude oil tank cars off the track. The oil cars burst into flames, sending giant fireballs into the air.",A westbound BNSF unit grain train operating on main track 1 derailed in front of an approaching eastbound BNSF unit petroleum crude oil train operating on main track 2. A derailed rail car from the grain train fouled main track 2 which was struck by the lead locomotive of the oil train resulting in the subsequent derailment of both lead locomotives and the head 20 rail cars of the oil train. A fire ensued as commodity ignited from the ruptured tank cars from the oil train which engulfed derailed locomotives and the derailed rail cars. A voluntary evacuation was initiated for the residents of nearby Casselton ND due to the presence of drifting smoke and fumes. Impacted top soils were excavated. Derailed tank car GATX 33119 sustained heat induced tears in its shell with all commodity consumed in the fire. GATX 33119 was deemed destroyed.,111A100W1,CRUDE OIL SWEET,Basic Material; - Punctured; Burst or Ruptured,1,1,1,0,1,0,0,3,9,46.900529,-97.2112 R14M0002,1/7/2014,1,2014,Plaster Rock,NB,"When the emergency brakes were activated on a CN train in Plaster Rock, more than a dozen cars derailed, including five loads of crude oil. A giant fire broke out, prompting an evacuation of houses in the area. The Transportation Safety Board later determined that the accident was caused by a broken axle on one of the train’s cars.","While proceeding eastward, CN train 308 reported an undesired emergency application of the air brakes. Examination of the train revealed that the 13th car, CRDX15109 (load of feed) was derailed with a broken axle. Cars 73 to 88 were also derailed including loads and residue tank cars of Liquified Petroleum Gases,UN1075, Hydrochloric Acid UN1789, and five loads of Petroleum Crude Oil, UN1267. There are 16 cars jackknifed across the main track with a large fire. Approximately 45 houses in the immediate area have been evacuated. TSB Investigators are deployed. No injury reported. ",111A100W1,PETROLEUM CRUDE OIL,,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,4,12,46.90825,-67.395531 X-2014030227,2/13/2014,2,2014,Vandergrift,PA,"Twenty-one tank cars derailed near Vandergrift and crashed into a nearby industrial building. Four crude oil cars were punctured, causing them to leak. Most of the derailed cars were carrying heavy Canadian crude. There was no fire.",Train 14G/13 traveling East derailed 21 cars on Conemaugh Main in Vandergrift PA. Four tank cars of petroleum crude oil lost product. UTLX 71033 lost an estimated 3 500 gallons due to a puncture TILX 270185 lost an estimated 200 gal. from a sheared off vapor valve TILX 254553 lost an estimated 800 gal due to the vapor and liquid valves being sheared off and XTRX 156061 entered a building and lost an estimated 50 gal from a bottom outlet valve from which the nozzle had sheared and the handle partially actuated the valve. The total estimated gal lost is 4 550 gal. The other petroleum crude oil cars that were involved in the derailment but did not release contents were: CBTX 729715 (rerailed) TILX 255044 (on side) XTRX 156039 (on side) TILX 270443 (on side) XTRX 156015 (on side) TCBX 254875 (on side) XTRX 156023 (on side) TILX 254800 (on side) CAPX 23604 (on side) TILX 255115 (on side) TILX 254311 (upright 30 deg) TILX 255043 (upright 30 deg) TILX 270363 (upright) TILX 270178 (on side) TILX 270378 (upright). Tank cars PLMX 137509 (upside down) and AMOX 33712 (upright- rerailed) each containing loads of butane also derailed and did not release contents.,111A100W1,,Tank Shell - Punctured,1,1,0,0,1,0,0,2,7,40.602843,-79.564767 X-2014050225,4/30/2014,4,2014,Lynchburg,VA,"A train carrying crude oil through Lynchburg derailed, sending three cars into a nearby river and causing a large fire. More than 350 people were told to leave buildings in the area as the fire continued to burn into the night. The train had been carrying crude oil from Chicago to Virginia.",(A)At approximately 13:57 on April 30 2014 the CSXT HG train dispatcher advised that the KO8227 was stopped in emergency and that fire was coming from the middle of the train near MP CAB 145.7 along the James River in Lynchburg Va. A total of 18 cars were derailed with three in the James River. CBTX 741712 was breeched during the derailment and its contents were consumed by fire. A total of 300 people were evacuated for a period of time. CSXT personnel along with contractors and consultants responded. The NTSB and the FRA are investigating the incident. (B) On April 30 2014 at approximately 19:00 personnel at the scene of the derailment in Lynchburg Va. discovered tank car CTCX 743023 leaking from the base of the liquid line while car was derailed on its side. CSXT HazMat personnel tried to tighten liquid line valve to stop the leak personnel were able to slow the leak. Do to the car being involved in the derailment the car was righted and transferred to another receiving car. The car is under legal hold by the NTSB. Once car is released by NTSB and CSX shipper will need to apply for a OTMA to have valve fixed. NARRI=283 5X(5+5+0)X(2X0)=100,111A100W1,CRUDE OIL SWEET,Tank Shell - Punctured,1,1,1,0,1,0,0,3,9,37.413754,-79.142246 X-2014060096,5/9/2014,5,2014,Lasalle,CO,"When a train derailed near Lasalle, one of the crude oil cars rolled over and began leaking.",UPON ARRIVAL AT THE DERAILMENT THE CAR IN QUESTION WAS LEAKING FROM THE MANWAY AREA. AFTER THE CAR WAS TRANSLOADED AND ROLLED UPRIGHT THE VACUUM RELIEF VALVE WAS IDENTIFIED AS THE LEAK LOCATION DUE TO IT BEING DEPRESSED FROM THE WEIGHT OF THE CAR.,111A100W1,CRUDE OIL SWEET,Vacuum Relief Valve; - Leaked;,1,1,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,41.436399,-88.941387 R14M0039,11/7/2014,11,2014,Moncton,NB,"Sixteen cars on a Canadian National train derailed, including 10 that were carrying crude oil. One tank car was breached and leaked about 30 gallons (114 litres) of crude oil. A report filed with the Transportation Safety Board said the oil was cleaned up by vacuum truck.","CN train M30831-06, pulling east into track R005 (Gordon Yard), derailed 16 cars (lines 22-37)including 10 loads of crude oil. Cars are upright. Minor leak from tank car TILX 281342 (about 30 gallons - crude oil) which was transshipped and leaked product cleaned up by vacuum truck. No injuries. CN officials responded.",111A100W1,PETROLEUM CRUDE OIL,OTHER CAUSES RELATING TO TRAIN HANDLING OR MAKEUP (PROVIDE DETAILED DESCRIPTION IN IIC NOTES),1,1,0,0,0,0,0,2,2,46.087817,-64.778231 R15H0013,2/14/2015,2,2015,Gogama,ON,"A CN train carrying crude oil petroleum distillates was moving east when the emergency brakes were applied. A fire broke out about 10 cars behind the locomotive and spread to seven of the derailed crude oil cars, causing a massive blaze about 30 kilometres from the small town of Gogama. Officials estimate that more than one million litres of crude and petroleum distillates were released.",,,,,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,3,4,47.27449,-83 ,2/16/2015,2,2015,Mount Carbon,WV,"A CSX unit train derailed near Mount Carbon, sending 28 tank cars of crude oil off the tracks. The tank cars, which were loaded with Bakken crude, immediately ignited and caused a massive fire that burned for several days. About 300 people were forced to leave their homes.",,,,,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,4,12,38.1378,-81.2856 X-2015040049,3/5/2015,3,2015,Galena,IL,"A crude oil train derailed in a rural area south of Galena, sending 21 loaded crude oil tank cars off the track and causing a massive fire that burned for two days. The BNSF train was carrying 103 tank cars when the accident occurred.",A. A BNSF unit petroleum crude oil train derailed 21 loaded tank cars while operating on main track. Cause of this derailment is currently under investigation. A fire ensued engulfing a portion of the derailed tank cars. The main fires were extinguished on 3/07/2015. Air monitoring ground and water sampling were initiated. Impacted top soils were excavated. Derailed tank car TILX 352017 sustained a heat induced or thermal tear at mid-shell at its A-end. Partial commodity within was consumed in the fire that ensued after the derailment. The remaining commodity within TILX 325017 was transferred into portable frac tanks which are awaiting disposition. Afterwards TILX 352017 deemed destroyed was cleaned and purged of hazardous material. B. A BNSF unit petroleum crude oil train derailed 21 loaded tank cars while operating on main track. Cause of this derailment is currently under investigation. A fire ensued engulfing a portion of the derailed tank cars. The main fires were extinguished on 3/07/2015. Air monitoring ground and water sampling were initiated. Impacted top soils were excavated. Derailed tank car TILX 352024 sustained a heat induced or thermal tear at its lower shell near its A-end. Partial commodity within was consumed in the fire that ensued after the derailment. The remaining commodity within TILX 352024 was transferred into portable frac tanks which are awaiting disposition. Afterwards TILX 352024 deemed destroyed was cleaned and purged of hazardous material. C. A BNSF unit petroleum crude oil train derailed 21 loaded tank cars while operating on main track. Cause of this derailment is currently under investigation. A fire ensued engulfing a portion of the derailed tank cars. The main fires were extinguished on 3/07/2015. Air monitoring ground and water sampling were initiated. Impacted top soils were excavated. Derailed tank car TILX 352052 sustained significant damage to its bottom outlet valve (BOV). The BOV protective skid was damaged which resulted in BOV body damage above the 'shear plane' and the BOV ball dislodged. The remaining commodity within TILX 352052 was transferred into portable frac tanks which are awaiting disposition. Afterwards TILX 352052 deemed destroyed was cleaned and purged of hazardous material. D. A BNSF unit petroleum crude oil train derailed 21 loaded tank cars while operating on main track. Cause of this derailment is currently under investigation. A fire ensued engulfing a portion of the derailed tank cars. The main fires were extinguished on 3/07/2015. Air monitoring ground and water sampling were initiated. Impacted top soils were excavated. Derailed tank car TILX 352040 sustained a heat induced or thermal tear in its top shell near its B-end. Partial commodity within was consumed in the fire that ensued after the derailment. The remaining commodity within TILX 352040 was transferred into portable frac tanks which are awaiting disposition. Afterwards TILX 35204,111A100W1,,Bottom Outlet Valve - Torn Off or Damaged,1,1,1,0,1,0,0,3,9,41.42,-90.429017 R15H0021,3/7/2015,3,2015,Gogama,ON,"Another CN train carrying crude oil derailed near Gogama just weeks after the Feb. 14 accident. This time, the derailment happened just a few kilometres away from the Northern Ontario town. The resulting fire burned for days and prompted troubling questions about the safety of the tank cars that were used. The train was hauling crude in CPC-1232 cars, a model that is considered tougher than the DOT-111 cars involved in the 2013 Lac-Mégantic crash.",,,,,1,1,1,0,0,0,0,3,4,48,-81.723429 ,5/6/2015,5,2015,Heimdal,ND,"A BNSF train carrying crude oil derailed and burst into flames near the small town of Heimdal. News reports said 10 tank cars jumped the tracks and more than one million litres caught fire. Black clouds filled the air, forcing residents to leave the area.",,,,,1,1,1,1,1,0,0,4,12,47.7928,-99.645