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Canada’s Health Minister has raised the possibility of mandatory vaccination as a way to end the COVID-19 pandemic. Some provinces are on board, some are standing up against the notion. A cross-country look at restrictions and vaccine mandate policies

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People receive COVID-19 vaccines at a mass vaccination clinic at Toronto's Scotiabank Arena.Cole Burston/The Canadian Press

The rapid spread of the Omicron variant of COVID-19 has Canada’s Health Minister Jean-Yves Duclos raising the possibility of government-mandated vaccination for the general public as a means of preventing the breakdown of provincial health care systems. Some provinces and territories have already embraced less sweeping vaccine requirements, but others have dismissed them. As a result, Canadians are facing a patchwork of rules and restrictions.

Here’s what you need to know about the ever-changing rules and vaccine mandates across Canada.

The federal government’s vaccine rules

  • Public sector: Since Oct. 29, proof of vaccination has been mandatory for federal public servants and workers in federally regulated industries, such as banking. Anyone without proof, or an exemption on medical or religious grounds, has been put on unpaid leave.
  • Domestic transport: Those travelling on cruise ships and VIA Rail trains have had to show either proof of vaccination or negative COVID-19 tests since Oct. 30.
  • International transport: Travellers looking to enter Canada, including Canadian citizens and permanent residents, must be fully vaccinated and show proof of negative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) COVID-19 tests, taken no more than 72 hours before departing for Canada. If they have no such proof, authorities can’t prevent them from entering as long as they’re citizens, but they are required to self-isolate on arrival. Truck drivers used to be exempt from proof-of-vaccination and quarantine requirements, but as of January, they are not.

Vaccine mandates by province and territory

Choose a jurisdiction



AtlanticNew BrunswickPEINova ScotiaNewfoundland and Labrador

TerritoriesYukonNorthwest TerritoriesNunavut

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A sign telling people to stay home sits in Edmonton's empty downtown.Jason Franson/The Canadian Press

As case numbers rose sharply in September, Alberta’s provincial government changed course on its speedy reopening plan, reintroducing physical distancing and declaring a new health emergency. As of Jan. 3, fully vaccinated Albertans only have to isolate for five days from the start of symptoms, or after symptoms resolve, whichever is longer. Anyone partially vaccinated will have to isolate for 10 days or until symptoms resolve, whichever is longer.

  • Passports: Since Oct. 25, businesses such as restaurants, movie theatres and sports venues have had to demand that patrons show proof of two doses of a COVID-19 vaccine, or negative test results from the past 72 hours. Individuals can ask for medical or religious exemptions. Businesses can opt out of the passport regime, but if they do they face extra capacity restrictions.
  • Public sector: Alberta Health Services employees had to be fully vaccinated by Nov. 30.
Public restrictions
  • Gatherings: Indoor social gatherings are limited to 10 adults. There are no limits on Albertans 17 and younger if parents or guardians are with them, but if minors are on their own, they count toward the 10-person limit. Outdoor private social gatherings are allowed a maximum of 20 people, with social distancing between households. Restaurants, cafés, bars and nightclubs that opt into the province’s vaccine passport program can have up to 10 people per table. A full list of rules can be found here.
  • Interprovincial travel: New arrivals to Alberta from within Canada don’t have to self-isolate.
British Columbia
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A man walks past a portrait of British Columbia's Provincial Health Officer, Bonnie Henry, on a boarded-up Vancouver building.Jonathan Hayward/The Canadian Press

British Columbia tightened public health restrictions after reporting a record number of COVID-19 cases this past December. A provincial passport system bars unvaccinated people from entering many non-essential businesses, sporting events and other recreational activities.

  • Passports: Residents aged 12 and older have to show BC Vaccine Cards to access several non-essential services such as restaurants, clubs, ticketed sporting events and other large events.
  • Public sector: Health-care workers have had to be fully vaccinated since Oct. 26.
Public restrictions
  • Gatherings: Up to 10 people from multiple households are allowed to gather indoors in a single home, though if the visitors are all from one household there can be more than 10. Outdoor gatherings have no restrictions. Small indoor events such as parties, weddings and funerals have been banned in B.C., while larger indoor venues like concert halls and sports stadiums may operate at 50 per cent capacity.
  • Interprovincial travel: Travellers do not need to self-isolate when entering B.C. from another province or territory.
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Tracey Skjerven cleans a bed at her tanning salon in Winnipeg.SHANNON VANRAES / THE GLOBE AND MAIL

Manitoba is at the orange – or “restricted” – level of its restrictions regime, although there may be more stringent rules in effect in certain regions.

  • Passports: The province launched a digital vaccine passport in June. It started requiring residents aged 12 and older to be fully vaccinated to access a wide range of services starting in September.
  • Public sector: The vaccination deadline for designated government employees came and went on Oct. 31. The list included front-line health care workers, public servants who work with vulnerable populations, and teachers.
Public restrictions
  • Public gatherings: Residential gatherings of up to 10 indoors and 20 outdoors are allowed if all the occupants are either fully vaccinated, medically exempt from vaccination or under the age of 12. If anyone present is unvaccinated, the limit shrinks to five indoors and 10 outdoors. Indoor public gatherings are limited to 25 per cent capacity or 25 people, whichever is lower; outdoor it’s 50 people.
  • Interprovincial travel: Fully vaccinated people entering Manitoba don’t have to self-isolate, but 14 days of isolation are required for partly vaccinated or unvaccinated people. Within Manitoba, no travel north of the 53rd parallel is allowed, with some exceptions for residents and essential services.
New Brunswick
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New Brunswick Premier Blaine Higgs and Dr. Jennifer Russell, chief medical officer of health, take a selfie after she administered his second vaccine dose.Stephen MacGillivray/The Canadian Press

New Brunswick is at Level 3 of the province’s Winter Plan, which allows:

  • Passports: Residents have to show ID and proof of full vaccination to access restaurants, bars, gyms, indoor festivals and an array of other activities.
  • Public sector: Proof of vaccination has been required since Sept. 13 for public servants and health care workers.
Public restrictions
  • Gatherings: Under Level 3, New Brunswickers are limited to a single-household bubble. Public gatherings are not permitted at any venues.
  • Interprovincial travel: Travellers aged 12 and older have to register their vaccination status and those who are unvaccinated will have to quarantine for 14 days.
Newfoundland and Labrador
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Riders on the Metro bus in St. John's adhere to COVID-19 guidelines.Paul Daly/The Canadian Press

Most of Newfoundland and Labrador is at Alert Level 4 of its reopening plan, Together Again, which allows:

  • Passport: The province has a system called NLVaxPass. Since Oct. 22, proof of full vaccination has been mandatory in places such as dine-in restaurants, bars, gyms, theatres and bingo halls. Employees at those places who are not fully vaccinated or medically exempt are no longer allowed entry for work or volunteer purposes.
  • Public sector: All provincial employees were required to be fully vaccinated or have approved medical exemptions by Dec. 17. The mandate includes staff at long-term care centres, first responders and schools.
Public restrictions
  • Gatherings: Under Alert Level 4, all residents are urged to stay at home whenever possible. Organized gatherings of up to 50 (or 25 per cent capacity, if that is less than 50 people) are allowed indoors and outdoors. Households can have bubbles of up to 10 close contacts. Here’s what the restrictions look like in other stages.
  • Interprovincial travel: New arrivals from other provinces have to submit travel forms in advance. Fully vaccinated travellers must self-isolate on arrival for five days and are required to complete COVID-19 rapid tests once a day for five days until their isolation periods end; unvaccinated or partly vaccinated travellers must isolate until they get negative PCR test results on day seven or later.
Northwest Territories
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The Northern Lights, as seen from Blachford Lake near Yellowknife.John Lehmann/The Globe and Mail

The Northwest Territories’ Emerging Wisely plan doesn’t have phases. Instead, it provides residents with a fluid list of risk-reduction advice and estimated dates for when gathering limits, self-isolation requirements and permitted indoor activities will change.

  • Passports: Residents can request QR-enabled vaccination records, but there is no organized system requiring them to be shown for access to local services.
  • Public sector: All employees, including those who work in remote communities or with vulnerable people, had to be fully vaccinated by Nov. 30. Any employee who can’t prove they were vaccinated or granted a medical exemption must wear personal protective equipment at the workplace and provide negative COVID-19 tests within 72 hours of going to work.
Public restrictions
  • Gatherings: Indoor gatherings are limited to 10 people, up to five of whom can be from other households. Indoor venues like bars and lounges are allowed a maximum of six people to a table; mingling between tables is not allowed.
  • Interterritorial travel: Leisure travel to the Northwest Territories is prohibited. Fully vaccinated people can come for work or family reasons without having to self-isolate. For partly vaccinated people, isolation is a minimum of eight days, plus negative COVID-19 tests, and for unvaccinated people it’s 10 days.
Nova Scotia
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Mannequins sport masks at Vogue Men's Wear & Tailoring in Halifax.Andrew Vaughan/The Canadian Press

Nova Scotia renewed its provincial state of emergency starting Jan. 9.

  • Passports: Residents aged 12 and older have had to show proof of full vaccination to participate in a range of “discretionary” activities since Oct. 4, either through a QR-code app called VaxCheckNS or by presenting other forms of vaccine certification.
  • Public sector: The provincial government’s existing employees and all new hires were required to have proof of full vaccination by Nov. 30. Anyone unable to provide either proof of vaccination or a medical exemption will be put on unpaid leave until they can prove they have received their shots.
Public restrictions
  • Gatherings: Informal social gatherings of up to 10 people indoors and outdoors are allowed. Proof of vaccination is needed for most gatherings outside of households, while masks and distancing are only needed in indoor venues that require them, such as restaurants.
  • Interprovincial travel: Everyone 12 and older from out of province has to check in before they travel to Nova Scotia, and they have to self-isolate for at least seven days unless exempted. Here is the full list of rules for all interprovincial travel.
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A stop sign in English, French and Inuit is seen in Iqaluit, Nunavut. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Paul ChiassonPaul Chiasson/The Canadian Press

Nunavut doesn’t have a staged reopening plan. Instead, it reassesses its public-health measures every two weeks. The territory has entered a state of emergency, which has been extended until Jan. 20.

  • Passports: Nunavummiut can request vaccination records from the territory that come with QR codes.
Public restrictions
  • Gatherings: Indoor gatherings are limited to five people in residences and 10 in other settings; outdoors, the limit is 25. Restaurants are open for takeout only.
  • Interterritorial travel: Nunavut is discouraging all non-essential travel within the territory and has banned non-essential travel to and from several communities. Fully vaccinated people can apply for exemptions to Nunavut’s rules for self-isolation on arrival; if they’re not eligible, they must self-isolate for 14 days before they fly in via Ottawa, Winnipeg, Edmonton or Yellowknife.
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A health-care worker and volunteers watch as Ontario Premier Doug Ford visits a vaccine clinic for Purolator employees in Toronto.Chris Young/The Canadian Press

Ontario is in a modified version of Step 2 of its Roadmap to Reopen plan, and will gradually relax restrictions starting Jan. 31.

Public restrictions
  • Gatherings: Organized social gatherings are limited to five people indoors and 10 outdoors. There are no limits on the number of people who can attend outdoor events like concerts, but masks are required if social distancing cannot be maintained. Retail stores, salons and indoor entertainment venues may operate at 50 per cent capacity, while all indoor dining has been banned.
  • Interprovincial travel: There are no restrictions on domestic travel to Ontario.
Prince Edward Island
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Provincial health workers stop traffic that has crossed the Confederation Bridge in Borden-Carleton, PEI.Andrew Vaughan/The Canadian Press

Prince Edward Island is extending temporary health measures, which include online learning in schools, until at least Jan. 31.

  • Passport: The Vax Pass system, introduced on Oct. 5, allows islanders to download their vaccination records and show them for entry to restaurants and other services using a secure QR code.
  • Public sector: There is no vaccine mandate in P.E.I., but the province’s Liberals have pressed the Progressive Conservative government to create one.
Public restrictions
  • Gatherings: Personal gatherings are limited to single households plus two regular contacts. Most forms of organized gatherings aren’t allowed, though funerals and weddings can have 10 people plus officiants. Non-essential businesses such as movie theatres, gyms and museums are closed to the public.
  • Interprovincial travel: Fully vaccinated travellers are required to self-isolate until they get negative test results on day four after arrival, even with a PEI Pass. Unvaccinated and partly vaccinated travellers will need to self-isolate for eight days, get negative test results on the eighth day and complete self-isolation declarations.
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A customer has her Quebec government-issued QR code scanned in Montreal.Graham Hughes/The Canadian Press

Quebec was the first province to adopt a vaccine passport system. Initially that allowed it to relax somewhat, but it has since once again imposed some of the toughest restrictions in the country.

  • Passports: Proof of vaccination through the VaxiCode app is required for access to bars, restaurant dining rooms, gyms, festivals, sports venues, cinemas, large events and both indoor and outdoor sports that involve prolonged contact, although most of those places have now been shuttered in an effort to curb rising cases of the virus.
  • Public sector: Quebec used to require all health care workers to be vaccinated if their jobs involved regular contact with the public, but in early November the Legault government backtracked because of potential labour shortages if unvaccinated people weren’t allowed to work. With hospitals being overwhelmed by outbreaks, Quebec has reduced the isolation period for some workers from 10 to five days.
Public restrictions
  • Gatherings: Indoor private gatherings are limited to single households, though single people can join someone else’s family bubble; outdoors, the limit is 20 people or the occupants of up to three households. The curfew imposed on New Year’s Eve has been lifted.
  • Additional tax: Quebec Premier François Legault announced on Jan. 11 that Quebec will impose a tax on those who aren’t vaccinated against COVID-19 to offset their disproportionate cost to the health care system and encourage more people to get their shots. Few details have emerged on how much the tax will cost the unvaccinated, but Mr. Legault has said that the amount will be “significant.”
  • Interprovincial travel: People from the rest of Canada can travel to Quebec without pre-registration or isolation on arrival.
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A Regina mother watches her three children doing distanced learning at home. Saskatchewan was one of the last Canadian provinces to adopt a vaccine passport.Danielle Tocker/The Globe and Mail

Saskatchewan came around to the idea of vaccine passports much later than other provinces, and its current COVID-19 restrictions are looser than those in neighbouring Alberta and Manitoba.

  • Passports: Residents have had to show proof of vaccination to access many indoor spaces since Oct. 1, and can now download QR code versions of their vaccination records through eHealth Saskatchewan. There is a QR reader app, SK Vax Verifier, that businesses and event organizers can use to scan the codes.
  • Public sector: Employees of Crown corporations have to be vaccinated or undergo regular testing. Saskatchewan Premier Scott Moe said on Jan. 7 that the province will not mandate vaccinations.
Public restrictions
  • Public gatherings: There are no limits on indoor or outdoor gatherings in Saskatchewan, although masks are mandatory in indoor public spaces.
  • Interprovincial travel: Self-isolation is not required for visitors or residents returning from out of province.
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A farm manager fills bags of chicken feed at the Yukon Grain Farm near Whitehorse.Crystal Schick/Reuters

Yukon announced a slate of new COVID-19 measures that took effect on Jan. 7.

  • Passports: Yukon created a digital vaccine credential program, and proof of vaccination is required to access most non-essential services.
  • Public sector: All public servants in Yukon, including teachers and health care workers, had to be fully vaccinated by Nov. 30, 2021.
Public restrictions
  • Public gatherings: Indoor gatherings have been restricted to a maximum of 10 people from two households if everyone is vaccinated. Gatherings are limited to household members only if anyone is unvaccinated. Up to 25 people can attend outdoor gatherings, regardless of whether or not they’re vaccinated. A full list of restrictions can be found here.
  • Interterritorial travel: Those entering Yukon don’t have to self-isolate, but it’s strongly recommended that they wait 10 days before using non-essential businesses such as restaurants.

More coronavirus resources

How many COVID-19 cases are there in Canada and worldwide? The latest maps and charts

Omicron symptoms mirror the flu and common cold. What should I do if I feel sick?

With files from Salmaan Farooqui, Tamsin McMahon, Evan Annett and The Canadian Press

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