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Since Hamas’s surprise attack on Oct. 7, fighting has killed thousands in Gaza and Israel and raised the threat of more strife to come in the Middle East. Here is a visual guide to what happened

What began with one day of horror in Israel has turned into weeks of war in the Gaza Strip, on a scale not seen in the Middle East in decades. A month after the Hamas attacks of Oct. 7, more than 9,000 Palestinians and 1,400 Israelis are dead. With neighbourhoods reduced to rubble by Israeli air strikes, and only a handful of aid trucks making it through from Egypt, survivors in Gaza are desperately short on food, water and medicine. Israel’s military, meanwhile, has encircled Gaza City for an operation Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu hopes will wipe out its Hamas rulers; and at the Lebanese border, clashes with Hamas’s ally Hezbollah have kept all sides alert for a bigger regional conflagration.

Photojournalists, including The Globe and Mail’s Goran Tomasevic, risked much over the past four weeks to show the world what is happening in Israel and the Palestinian territories, and how other countries have responded. For each day of the conflict, we have collected three images to capture its many facets, with summaries of the day’s events and links to our continuing coverage.

Table of contentsWeek 1, Oct. 7-13Week 2, Oct. 14-20Week 3, Oct. 21-27Week 4, Oct. 28-Nov. 3

Day 1: Rockets from Gaza

Israelis expected Oct. 7 to be a quiet Saturday for the holiday of Simchat Torah, until the rockets started to fall – an attack that caught the military unprepared and was likely planned for months.

Fighters from the Palestinian militant groups Hamas and Islamic Jihad stormed across a border Israel has blockaded since 2007, targeting military facilities, Israeli towns and a music festival before returning to Gaza with dozens of hostages. Israel retaliated with air strikes as its Prime Minister promised “our enemy will pay a price the type of which it has never known.”

More: Israelis, Palestinians recount the chaotic hours of Oct. 7

Rescue teams tend to an elderly man at a rocket-damaged building in Ashkelon, a town on the Israeli side of the border targeted in the initial attacks from Gaza on the Palestinian side. AHMAD GHARABLI/AFP via Getty Images
Rockets leave smoke trails as they rise from Gaza City. Hamas claimed there were 5,000 projectiles in the first barrage; the Israeli military said it was 2,500. MAHMUD HAMS/AFP via Getty Images
In Ashkelon, police officers evacuate a woman and child from a site hit by a rocket. The Hamas assault reached as many as 22 locations outside Gaza, as far away as Tel Aviv. Tsafrir Abayov/The Associated Press

Day 2: Israel strikes back

On Oct. 8, Israel formally declared war against Hamas as bombardments of Gaza killed hundreds more people. Air strikes levelled dozens of units of residential housing, according to United Nations estimates.

As Israel’s allies condemned Hamas, U.S. President Joe Biden dispatched warships to the eastern Mediterranean and promised new military aid to Israel. Prime Minister Justin Trudeau demanded the release of all hostages as Canada investigated reports that its citizens might be among the captives.

Editorial: Canada must stand by Israel

From Ashkelon, rockets from the Iron Dome anti-missile system can be seen hitting projectiles from Gaza. Since Iron Dome became operational in 2011, Israel has boasted it can successfully block 90 per cent of incoming targets or more. Amir Cohen/Reuters
People in Khan Yunis, in southern Gaza, survey the damage after Israeli fire hit a mosque. SAID KHATIB/AFP via Getty Images
Palestinian families take shelter in a United Nations-run school building in Gaza City. MOHAMMED ABED/AFP via Getty Images

Day 3: Reality of war sinks in

Israel declared a “full siege” of Gaza on Oct. 9 as Hamas threatened to execute hostages unless attacks on Palestinian civilians stopped. Meanwhile, Qatari mediators were working to secure the release of Israeli women and children in exchange for Palestinians in Israeli jails, Reuters reported, citing a source briefed on the talks.

Family and friends of Alexandre Look, a 33-year-old Montrealer, confirmed that he was one of the victims at the music festival.

Opinion from Marsha Lederman: No, your Jewish and Palestinian friends are not okay

In Gaza City, Palestinians inspect the rubble of the Yassin Mosque after it was levelled by an Israeli air strike at Shati refugee camp. Adel Hana/The Associated Press
Israelis in Ashkelon evacuate a site struck by a rocket fired from Gaza. Ohad Zwigenberg/The Associated Press
Palestinians evacuate the area after an Israeli air strike in Gaza City. MAHMUD HAMS/AFP via Getty Images

Day 4: The net tightens

By Oct. 10, Israel said it had secured Gaza’s entire border as troops massed along it for an expected ground assault. Up north at the Lebanese border, the risk of an escalating regional war grew as Israeli and Hezbollah forces traded fire.

Canada’s Foreign Affairs Minister confirmed plans to have military aircraft fly citizens out of Tel Aviv “in the coming days.” Canadians also learned of a second confirmed death in the Hamas attacks: Ben Mizrachi, 22, of Vancouver.

Opinion from Shlomo Ben-Ami: The destructive hubris of Netanyahu

Smoke rises from the Gaza City seaport as Israel’s military enforced a tighter blockade on the Palestinian enclave’s mediterranean coastline. BELAL AL SABBAGH/AFP via Getty Images
A man carries a wounded child into al-Shifa hospital in Gaza City. First responders in the blockade zone are making do without electricity after Israel cut it off, along with supplies of fuel. MOHAMMED ABED/AFP via Getty Images
A woman passes a bullet-damaged wall in Zahajra, Lebanon, where border skirmishes between Israel and Hezbollah have escalated. Hezbollah, backed by Iran, has close ties to Palestinian groups fighting Israel. Tsafrir Abayov/The Associated Press

Day 5: Knesset mobilizes, Israelis mourn

Israel’s legislators formed an emergency unity government and war cabinet on Oct. 11 as military jets continued the bombardment of Gaza. In communities like Be’eri, a kibbutz where Hamas killed as many as 120 people, authorities took stock of the horrors left behind from Oct. 7’s attacks.

Canada’s first evacuation flight from Israel, a privately chartered Dash 8, left Haifa on Oct. 11 as the federal government arranged for airlifts out of Tel Aviv by the end of the week. In Ottawa, family and friends mourned a third confirmed Canadian casualty, 33-year-old Adi Vital-Kaploun.

More: Loved ones recount horror of Canadian shot by Hamas in front of children

Soldiers walk through Kibbutz Be’eri five days after militants from nearby Gaza attacked the commune in southern Israel, killing at least 120 residents. Globe journalists saw stacks of bodies of Hamas fighters in white bags labelled ‘terrorist’ in Hebrew. Goran Tomasevic/The Globe and Mail
An Israeli woman in Ashkelon covers her face, reacting to incoming rocket fire over the Israeli city. That day, the military said it stopped an incursion by militants into Ashkelon, killing several. Leo Correa/The Associated Press
Evacuees kneel at a Rio de Janeiro airbase after getting off an air-force flight from Israel. Brazil holds the rotating presidency of the UN Security Council, giving it a key role in the global response to the conflict. Silvia Izquierdo/The Associated Press

Day 6: A helping hand

U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken visited Tel Aviv on Oct. 12 to reassure Israelis of Washington’s support in the conflict with Hamas and efforts to free hostages in Gaza.

Ottawa pledged another $10-million in humanitarian aid as a planeload of 130 Canadians, the first government-sponsored evacuees from the conflict zone, left Tel Aviv for Athens.

Opinion from Yossi Klein Halevi: A reborn Israel faces terrifying options

Mourners attend the Oct. 12 funeral of soldier Shilo Rauchberger at the Mount Herzl cemetery in Jerusalem. Public broadcaster Kan said on Oct. 12 that the Israeli death toll had passed 1,300; the Gaza Health Ministry said 1,400 Palestinians had been killed. Francisco Seco/The Associated Press
At a donation centre in Tel Aviv, U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken is embraced by two survivors of the music-festival attack: Lior Gelbaum, a dual U.S.-Israeli citizen, and her boyfriend, Klil Valiano. Jacquelyn Martin/The Associated Press
Volunteers in Tel Aviv prepare supplies for soldiers and evacuated residents. Planeloads of foreign nationals, including Canadians, have left Tel Aviv in recent days as reservists arrive from abroad. GIL COHEN-MAGEN/AFP via Getty Images

Day 7: The southward scramble

Israel’s military gave people in northern Gaza 24 hours’ notice to move south on Oct. 13 “for their own safety and protection,” a move humanitarian groups said would cause panic and harm. The evacuation also raised fears in Egypt, Gaza’s southern neighbour, that a surge of refugees would soon break through.

Israeli shelling killed a Reuters videographer and wounded six other journalists in Lebanon on Oct. 13, where they were covering cross-border clashes with Hezbollah.

More: Israeli troops launch raid into Gaza as pressure escalates

By donkey cart, by car and on foot, Palestinians evacuate Gaza City on Oct. 13 after Israeli forces warned residents to leave the northern Gaza Strip before an expected ground offensive against Hamas. MAHMUD HAMS/AFP VIA GETTY IMAGES
A protester runs past burning barricades in Ramallah, the Palestinian Authority’s de facto capital in the West Bank. Its president, Mahmoud Abbas, was in Jordan on Oct. 13 and met the U.S. Secretary of State. Goran Tomasevic/The Globe and Mail
Israeli police detain a would-be Palestinian worshipper at Jerusalem’s al-Aqsa Mosque, where Israeli authorities allowed only certain older men, women and children to enter for Friday prayers. Maya Alleruzzo/The Associated Press

Day 8: No exit in Rafah

About 150 Canadians had hoped to leave the Gaza Strip via Rafah on Oct. 14, only to be trapped by the apparent failure of an international deal to briefly open the Egyptian border crossing to foreign nationals.

Family of Shir Hanna Georgy, a dual Canadian-Israeli citizen, identified her as the fourth Canadian killed in the conflict. Her aunt shared a short video of the 22-year-old and other attendees of the music festival hiding from Hamas forces.

More: In Lebanon, some rush to leave as possible Israel retaliation against Hezbollah looms

At an Oct. 14 funeral in Al Khiyam, Lebanon, Fatma Kanso mourns over the coffin of Issam Abdullah, the Reuters videographer killed by an Israeli shell while he was on assignment at the Lebanese border. Zohra Bensemra/Reuters
Palestinians wait at the Rafah crossing between southern Gaza and Egypt. Here, dozens of Canadians had been told they would have a three-hour window to cross safely, but that plan fell through. Hatem Ali/The Associated Press
In Tel Aviv, relatives and supporters of Israeli hostages post their images on a board. At the Expo Tel Aviv conference centre, volunteers continued to pore through photos and video to identify missing people. GIL COHEN-MAGEN/AFP via Getty Images

Day 9: Thirst and sickness

With supplies of water, food and medicine badly depleted in Gaza, the United Nations warned on Oct. 15 that, without action, the Israeli blockade would be “a death sentence” for thousands of sick and injured Palestinians. Some hospital staff in northern Gaza were defying Israel’s order to evacuate south before the expected ground offensive begins.

Israel’s consul-general in Toronto identified Canada’s fifth casualty as Netta Epstein, 21, who leapt on a grenade to protect his girlfriend when militants threw the explosive into his family home.

More: Jewish groups in Poland angered by comparison of Palestinian attack to Warsaw ghetto uprising

Palestinians clear the rubble of a building in Deir el-Balah, a town in southern Gaza, on Oct. 15 after it was destroyed by Israeli air strikes. Hasan Islayeh/The Associated Press
Palestinians collect water in Khan Younis on the ninth day of the blockade, when the UN warned many in Gaza were drinking dirty water and others would begin to die of dehydration if water was not restored. Fatima Shbair/The Associated Press
Israelis mourn at the Oct. 15 funeral of Corporal Dvir Lisha, 21, who was killed by Hamas militants. By the start of the war’s second week, Israel had called up some 360,000 reservists. Lisi Niesner/Reuters

Day 10: Rescue in the west, gridlock in the south

Twenty-one Canadians evacuees from the West Bank reached Jordan safely on Oct. 16, Foreign Affairs Minister Mélanie Joly confirmed after a bus trip believed to be the first evacuation of foreign nationals from that area. About 100 Canadian citizens, permanent residents and their families in the West Bank, and 300 in the Gaza Strip, have officially sought Canada’s help getting out.

Meanwhile, dozens of aid trucks sat idle on the Egyptian side of Gaza’s southern border, waiting for Israeli restrictions to lift so they can bring Palestinians desperately needed water and medicine.

More: Many in Lebanon dread war with Israel as tensions escalate

A Palestinian protester hurls rocks in a standoff with Israeli forces at the northern entrance to Ramallah on Oct. 16. The situation in the West Bank was not as dangerous as in Gaza, but many of the foreign nationals trapped there were eager to get out before that changed. JAAFAR ASHTIYEH/AFP via Getty Images
U.S. citizens wait at the port of Haifa to be evacuated to Cyprus. Haifa lies in northern Israel near the border with Lebanon, where Hezbollah and Israeli forces have exchanged fire since early in the war. ARIS MESSINIS/AFP via Getty Images
At a crosswalk near the Defence Ministry office in Tel Aviv, a protester urges Israel to make a deal for the prisoners captured by Hamas. On Oct. 16, Israel raised its total estimate of captives to 199 people. AHMAD GHARABLI/AFP via Getty Images

Day 11: The hospital horror

Rocket fire killed hundreds of people at Gaza City’s al-Ahli hospital on Oct. 17, with health officials blaming Israel and the Israeli military blaming a misfire by Islamic Jihad militants. It was the single deadliest event reported in Gaza since the war began, a grim end to a day when the estimated Palestinian death toll passed 3,000. The al-Ahli tragedy led Jordan to cancel talks in Amman with the Palestinian, Egyptian and U.S. leaders.

Canada named its sixth confirmed casualty of the Hamas attacks: Tiferet Lapidot, 22, an attendee at the Oct. 7 music festival.

More: UN agency warns of ‘chilling’ situation facing pregnant women in Gaza

First responders take an injured Palestinian to al-Shifa hospital in Gaza City on Oct. 17 after a rocket struck another hospital, al-Ahli, which officials in Israel and Hamas-ruled Gaza blamed on each other. Mohammed al-Masri/Reuters
A mourner cries as bodies lie at a hospital in Khan Younis, in southern Gaza, where more Israeli air strikes landed on Oct. 17. MOHAMMED ABED/AFP via Getty Images
Mourners in Gan Yavne, Israel, attend the funeral of the Kotz family, whose five members were killed by Hamas in Oct. 7’s raid on Kibbutz Kfar Azza, near the Gaza border. Ohad Zwigenber/The Associated Press

Day 12: Backup from Biden

“I come to Israel with a single message: you are not alone,” the U.S. President said on his Oct. 18 visit to Tel Aviv. He announced new military aid to Israel and a deal to open Gaza’s southern border to the truckloads of water, food and medicine waiting on the Egyptian side.

Back in Washington, the White House said U.S. intelligence showed Israel was not to blame for the al-Ahli explosion in Gaza City the night before. That assessment was based on “analysis of overhead imagery, intercepts and open source information,” a National Security Council spokesperson said on social media.

More: Hezbollah warns it will respond to Gaza tragedy

Palestinians assess the damage at Gaza City’s al-Ahli hospital on Oct. 18, the day after a rocket strike killed hundreds of people there. On his visit to Israel that day, U.S. President Joe Biden, citing Defence Department intelligence, supported Israel’s claim that a misfired Islamic Jihad missile was to blame. Abed Khaled/The Associated Press
In Ramallah, medics carry a Palestinian man shot by Israeli border police at a protest, one of several across the occupied West Bank on Oct. 18. Palestinian officials said Israeli forces killed two teens in a village west of Ramallah. Goran Tomasevic/The Globe and Mail
Mr. Biden embraces Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu at Ben Gurion airport in Tel Aviv. During the eight-hour visit, Mr. Biden promised military aid to Israel but urged its leaders to have a clear plan for its wartime objectives. BRENDAN SMIALOWSKI/AFP via Getty Images

Day 13: The West Bank raid

Israeli forces arrested Hamas’s co-founder on Oct. 19 in a West Bank raid launched hours after The Globe and Mail interviewed him. Sheik Hassan Yousef had said Hamas’s military wing didn’t warn him what they were planning on Oct. 7, and that “mistakes” were made that day, but he believed hostages might be freed in exchange for a 24-hour ceasefire. Israel’s foreign-affairs ministry dismissed the idea in an e-mail to The Globe after Sheik Yousef’s arrest: “Hamas lies in everything it says.”

More: For Arabs in Israeli town of Abu Ghosh, a life ‘caught in the middle’ of the religious divide

Portraits of Hamas’s victims lie on chairs at Tel Aviv University’s Smolarz Auditorium on Oct. 19, part of a memorial exhibit titled United Against Terrorism. AHMAD GHARABLI/AFP via Getty Images
Israeli forces patrol in an armoured vehicle near the Gaza Strip. Defence Minister Yoav Gallant visited the border on Thursday and told troops: ‘You see Gaza now from a distance, you will soon see it from inside.’ Goran Tomasevic/The Globe and Mail
A boy holds a cat at an UNRWA camp in Khan Younis on Oct. 19, when U.S. and Egyptian officials said southern Gaza should not expect the first aid shipments to go through Rafah until Friday at the earliest. MAHMUD HAMS/AFP via Getty Images

Day 14: Hints of Israel’s endgame

The final phase of Israel’s war against Hamas will be the “removal of Israel’s responsibility for life in the Gaza Strip,” Defence Minister Yoav Gallant told lawmakers on Oct. 20, the first time a top Israeli official had spoken so publicly about postwar plans. That day, his ministry ordered the evacuation of the largest town near the Lebanese border, Kiryat Shmona, a signal that the ground offensive into Gaza might soon begin.

Hamas freed its first hostages since the war began, citing humanitarian reasons and mediation efforts from Qatar. The American mother and daughter had been taken from Kibbutz Nahal Oz on Oct. 7.

Analysis: Israel-Hamas war puts Arab leaders on edge as domestic anger grows and region unravels

Israeli soldiers keep watch over Palestinians praying in Jerusalem on Oct. 20. In the distance is the golden dome of the al-Aqsa Mosque, where access is limited as authorities try to prevent demonstrations like those that have followed Friday prayers in many other Middle Eastern cities during the Israel-Hamas war. GORAN TOMASEVIC/THE GLOBE AND MAIL
A Palestinian protester in Ramallah is shot in the leg while throwing rocks at Israeli forces on Oct. 20, another day of unrest in the West Bank. Goran Tomasevic/The Globe and Mail
Children in Beirut waves the Palestinian flag on Oct. 20 alongside the banners of two Shia Muslim parties in Lebanon, Hezbollah and Amal. MAHMUD HAMS/AFP via Getty Images

Day 15: A trickle of aid

Twenty trucks of humanitarian aid crossed the Rafah checkpoint on Oct. 21, and while UN agencies were glad to see supplies finally enter Gaza from Egypt, they said it was more symbolic than a real solution to the crisis. “We need continuous access,” Samer AbdelJaber, the Palestine Country Director for the World Food Program, said on social media. “People need food, water and medicine every day, not just once.”

More: Ottawa prepares for historic evacuation of Canadians from Lebanon

Humanitarian aid trucks arrive in Khan Younis on Oct. 21 after 20 trucks entered Gaza via the Rafah border crossing with Egypt. UN officials estimate that 100 trucks are needed daily to meet Palestinians’ needs for food, water and medical treatment. BELAL AL SABBAGH/AFP via Getty Images
Israelis take cover in a Tel Aviv bomb shelter on Oct. 21 as sirens warn of incoming rockets from Gaza. Gideon Markowicz/Reuters
Palestinians take shelter on Oct. 21 at a United Nations school in Khan Younis, which saw more Israeli air strikes over the weekend. MAHMUD HAMS/AFP via Getty Images

Day 16: Fire from above

Israel escalated its air war on Sunday, with warplanes striking more targets in the Gaza Strip, Lebanon and two airports in Syria. The U.S. secretaries of State and Defence said Washington would send more military personnel to aid Israel, and they would be prepared to defend themselves if attacked.

The Gaza Health Ministry raised the Palestinian death toll on Oct. 22 to 4,740 people – mostly women, children and older adults – compared with more than 1,400 estimated dead in Israel, most of whom were killed in the initial Oct. 7 attacks.

More: Once a haven for the LGBTQ community in the Arab world, Lebanon confronts a new hostility

Palestinians look for survivors in Deir Al-Balah after an Israeli missile hit on Oct. 22, a day of escalating air assault on the Gaza Strip. An Israeli military spokesman said the air strikes would reduce the risk to troops in the next stage of the war, an expected ground assault. Hatem Moussa/The Associated Press
Volunteers celebrate on the Egyptian side of the Rafah border crossing on Oct. 22, when a second convoy of aid trucks set off for Gaza. Mahmoud Khaled/Getty Images
Loved ones pay respects to David Carroll at his funeral in Revivim, Israel, on Oct. 22, two weeks after he was killed by Hamas militants. ARIS MESSINIS/AFP via Getty Images

Day 17: Calls for restraint, relief and reflection

In Washington, U.S. officials challenged Israel’s ban on fuel to the Gaza Strip on Oct. 23, stressing that hospitals and desalination plants needed supplies to keep running. In Abu Dhabi, Canada’s Foreign Affairs Minister called on both sides to show more restraint to protect civilians, but stopped short of advising a ceasefire.

Hamas released two elderly women from captivity in Gaza, citing humanitarian reasons, bringing the total of freed hostages to four so far. The women’s husbands – who had been captured alongside them from Kibbutz Nir Oz on Oct. 7 – remained hostages. Families of other captives pleaded with Israel’s government to rein in the war effort to buy time to free their loved ones.

More: Palestinians in the West Bank fear escalating violence that has left dozens dead

Palestinians receive donated food on Oct. 23 at a UN-run school in Rafah, where a third convoy of 20 trucks arrived from Egypt. The UN said aid so far has reached just 4 per cent of the daily average before the Israel-Hamas war. An Israeli military spokesman said the air strikes would reduce the risk to troops in the next stage of the war, an expected ground assault. Mahmoud al-Masri/Reuters
This family's house in Tulkarem, West Bank, had been a ruin for days when The Globe visited on Oct. 23. The portrait is of Azmi Ghanem Tanuh, a family member killed in a firefight with Israel troops in 2004. Goran Tomasevic/The Globe and Mail
Hezbollah members carry the coffin of their comrade Abbas Shuman through Baalbek, Lebanon, on Oct. 23. He was killed in fighting with the Israeli military, which launched more air strikes that day on Hezbollah cells it said were planning to attack. Amr Alfiky/Reuters

Day 18: Pleading for a pause while warning off Iran

Canada supports “humanitarian pauses” to allow aid into Gaza, Mr. Trudeau said on Oct. 24, joining a growing chorus of world leaders calling to avert more Palestinian civilian deaths.

Washington does not want to pick a fight with Tehran, but “if Iran or its proxies attack U.S. personnel anywhere, make no mistake: we will defend our people,” U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken told the UN Security Council on Oct. 24, underscoring the fear of further escalations in the Israel-Hamas war.

More: How Lebanon’s financial crisis accidentally prepared it for war

Israeli soldiers conduct drills with Merkava tanks near the Lebanese border on Oct. 24, when Washington repeated warnings to the Lebanese militant group Hezbollah and its patron, Iran, not to get involved in the Israel-Hamas war. JALAA MAREY/AFP VIA GETTY IMAGES
Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu welcomes French President Emmanuel Macron in Jerusalem on Oct. 24. Mr. Macron said France stood ‘shoulder to shoulder’ with Israel but that it must not fight Hamas ‘without rules.’ Christophe Ena/Pool via REUTERS
Freed Israeli hostage Yocheved Lifshitz, 85, holds a news conference in Tel Aviv on Oct. 24. She said Hamas militants beat her during the abduction on Oct. 7, but treated her well in captivity. ERIK MARMOR/AFP via Getty Images

Day 19: UN runs on empty

UN aid groups in Gaza are nearly out of fuel and will have to scale back their efforts, UNRWA, the agency for Palestinian refugees, said on Oct. 25. a spokeswoman told Associated Press that UNRWA must make “excruciating” decisions about where to use the fuel remaining: hospitals, water desalination or trucks carrying supplies.

The UN’s Secretary-General condemned Hamas on Oct. 25 while rejecting claims that he had justified their actions the day before. “This is false. It was the opposite,” Antonio Guterres said, without singling out the Israeli officials who denounced his comment to the Security Council that Oct. 7′s attacks “did not happen in a vacuum.”

More: Tensions rise amid reports white phosphorus was used in Lebanon

Birds perch on the rubble of a Khan Younis building after an Israeli air strike on Oct. 25, a day of intensified bombardment of southern Gaza. Ibraheem Abu Mustafa/Reuters
People in Tel Aviv look at teddy bears with bandaged eyes, signs of injury and portraits of missing children, a tribute to Israelis believed to be held hostage by Hamas. Leon Neal/Getty Images
Men carry M-16 assault rifles at a shopping mall in Jerusalem on Oct. 25. Israelis have been increasingly wary of their conflict with Hamas spreading beyond Gaza. YURI CORTEZ/AFP via Getty Images

Day 20: A foray into Gaza

Israeli troops made sorties into northern Gaza in the early hours of Oct. 26, hitting several Hamas targets, the military said, calling it the biggest incursion to date before the larger ground assault.

Global Affairs Canada confirmed a seventh person connected with Canada was killed in the Israel-Hamas fighting. A government source told The Globe the person had died in southern Israel on Oct. 7; The Globe is not identifying the source because they were not permitted to disclose details of the incident.

More: In Israel, survivors of Hamas massacre grapple with new realities and traumatic memories

Religious Israeli youth, too young for military service, wave flags at the Western Wall in Jerusalem. Earlier that day, Israeli army radio said soldiers had raided Gaza and destroyed several Hamas targets, suffering no casualties. ARIS MESSINIS/AFP via Getty Images
An employee enters the Red Cross offices in Ramallah on Oct. 26 after activists wrote ‘silence is a crime’ on the door. Palestinian groups are pressing aid organizations to do more to access Palestinians in Israeli custody. JAAFAR ASHTIYEH/AFP via Getty Images
Palestinians in Khan Younis review the damage after Israeli strikes on Oct. 26. Israel faced new cricitism for its bombing campaign in a joint statement from the foreign ministers of nine Arab countries, including Gaza's neighbour Egypt. Mohammed Salem/Reuters

Day 21: Gaza goes dark, digitally

Internet and mobile-phone access collapsed across the Gaza Strip on Friday, a local telecom provider and the Red Crescent said after a day of intensified air strikes that the Israeli military said would pave the way for ground assaults. An army spokesman, Rear Adm. Daniel Hagari, said ground troops would be “expanding their activity this evening.”

Officials from 20 countries, including Canada, were assembled at a base in Cyprus to prepare to evacuate citizens from Lebanon if the war spreads there. In total, the countries plan to take out more than 150,000 people, the deputy commander of the Joint Rescue Coordination Centre told The Globe and Mail.

In Cyprus, Canadian soldiers await potential orders for evacuation of citizens in Lebanon

Islamic Jihad members carry a body through Jenin, West Bank, at a funeral for two militants killed that morning. The Israeli military said its forces came under attack during arrest operations and the militants were killed when they fired back. GORAN TOMASEVIC/THE GLOBE AND MAIL
A Shabbat dinner table in Herzliya, Israel, is set out with more than 200 places to represent the hostages held by Hamas. KUBA STEZYCKI/REUTERS
An armed Israeli holds his son in Tel Aviv as they leave their vehicle to take cover during a rocket attack. GIL COHEN-MAGEN/AFP VIA GETTY IMAGES

Day 22: The ‘second stage’

Israel widened ground operations in northern Gaza on Oct. 28, in what Mr. Netanyahu – speaking in his first national TV address of the war – called the “second stage” of a plan to destroy Hamas’s ability to fight and govern. Details were scarce on the size of the deployment, but the military said one of its main objectives was to clear and collapse Hamas's network of tunnels.

The communication blackout left Palestinian diasporas, including Canada's, anxious for news about loved ones in Gaza. Global Affairs Canada reiterated that it was trying to help Canadians stuck there find options to leave safely.

More: Biden’s support of Israel puts election campaign and foreign policy to a difficult test

Israeli troops give a thumbs up near the Gaza border in Sderot. 'Our heroic soldiers have one supreme goal: to destroy the murderous enemy and ensure our existence in our land,' Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu said in a TV address announcing the ground operations. RIS MESSINIS/AFP via Getty Images
Pro-ceasefire protesters rally in Tel Aviv on Oct. 28. Earlier that day, a coalition of hostages' families criticized the government for not telling them when the ground operation would begin. AHMAD GHARABLI/AFP via Getty Images
A protester faces a police officer in Paris on Oct. 28, when a local court validated a ban on pro-Palestinian demonstrations due to the 'gravity of the risks of troubling public order.' GEOFFROY VAN DER HASSELT/AFP via Getty Images

Day 23: The fog lifts

Mobile-phone and internet service began to be restored in Gaza on Oct. 29, giving the world a somewhat clearer picture of the ground offensive. Social-media posts appeared to show troops approaching Gaza City and waving the Israeli flag at a beach hotel in the Gaza Strip.

In Khan Younis, thousands of Palestinians looted a United Nations warehouse, angered to see stockpiles of flour and cooking oil inside. “They want to survive. That’s it,” journalist Fadi Hanuneh told The Globe.

More: Former Israeli PM says international troops should help stabilize Gaza after war

Smoke rises from the Gaza Strip on Oct. 29, when the Israeli army said it sent more troops to fight Hamas inside the Gaza Strip. Gaza City’s largest hospitals continued to operate despite air strikes nearby. FADEL SENNA/AFP via Getty Images
Women cry at the Oct. 29 funeral of Naeem Farran, a man killed by Israeli troops that morning, at the Askar refugee camp near Nablus in the West Bank. Goran Tomasevic/The Globe and Mail
Palestinians in Deir al-Balah wash their clothes and belongings in sea water on the beach, making do as supplies of fresh water and food run short in Gaza. Mohammed Dahman/The Associated Press

Day 24: One Hamas hostage freed, dozens more to go

Israeli troops freed a comrade from militants in Gaza on Oct. 30 as they closed in on Gaza City from two sides. Private Ori Megidish had been captured in the Oct. 7’s attack, and Mr. Netanyahu said her safe return “illustrates our commitment to free all the hostages.”

In Russia, a senior rabbi pressed the Kremlin to punish antisemitic rioters in Dagestan after they stormed a flight from Tel Aviv at the airport in Makhachkala, the Muslim-majority region’s capital. Police said they arrested 60 members of the mob, which was apparently egged on by posts on the Telegram messaging app that said “unclean” visitors were coming.

More: Since start of war, more than 1,700 Palestinians in West Bank have disappeared into Israeli custody, officials say

Hadas Kalderon breaks down in tears at her late mother’s destroyed home in Kibbutz Nir Oz on Oct. 30. Hamas militants abducted her children and killed her mother and niece. More than three weeks after the Oct. 7 attacks, Israeli officials said just over half the people killed have been laid to rest Dan Kitwood/Getty Images
Cars destroyed by Hamas on Oct. 7 lie near the Israel-Gaza border on Oct. 30. Israeli forces were pushing deeper into Gaza as the Hamas-run health ministry voiced concern about air strikes close to hospitals. Ilan Rosenberg/Reuters
Israeli soldiers clean a tank turret on Oct. 30 in western Galilee, near the Lebanese border. A day earlier, Hezbollah claimed to have shot down an Israeli drone over Lebanon; the Israeli military did not comment. JALAA MAREY/AFP via Getty Images

Day 25: No refuge in Jabaliya

Palestinians at Gaza’s Jabaliya refugee camp scrambled to find survivors on Oct. 31 after air strikes levelled apartment complexes that the Israeli military said had been taken over by Hamas. Israel said the attack killed Ibrahim Biari, a senior Hamas figure it alleged had been a key planner of the Oct. 7 massacre.

In Washington, Mr. Biden threatened to veto a House Republican bill that would give military aid to Israel but not Ukraine, which is still fighting an invasion by Russia. Members of Mr. Biden’s cabinet pressed the Senate for more funding at hearings where pro-Palestinian protesters repeatedly interrupted them.

Opinion from Justin Ling: Ottawa’s incoherent position on Gaza must be replaced by principled clarity

Hadas Kalderon breaks down in tears at her late mother’s destroyed home in Kibbutz Nir Oz on Oct. 30. Hamas militants abducted her children and killed her mother and niece. More than three weeks after the Oct. 7 attacks, Israeli officials said just over half the people killed have been laid to rest. Anas al-Shareef/Reuters
Protesters raise red-painted hands behind U.S. Secretary Antony Blinken on Oct. 31, when he testified to a Senate committee about military aid for Israel and Ukraine. Kevin Lamarque/Reuters
Adva Gutman, the sister of a hostage from the Oct. 7 attacks, cries at a ‘unity’-themed event at the Great Synagogue of Paris, where people called for the release of Hamas's captives. MIGUEL MEDINA/AFP via Getty Images

Day 26: The first ones out

The first group of Palestinian dual nationals crossed through Rafah into Egypt on Nov. 1, ending more than three weeks of waiting to escape southern Gaza. One Canadian was among them, according to Global Affairs Canada, which has fielded requests for help from more than 450 Canadians in Palestinian territory since the war began.

Jordan recalled its ambassador from Tel Aviv on Nov. 1 to protest against Israel’s bombardment of Gaza, and said he would not return unless the war and “unprecedented humanitarian catastrophe” stopped. Israel’s envoy left Amman two weeks ago amid protests.

More: Volunteers help out on Israeli farms near Gaza border to save crops threatened by war

A child looks through glass at the Rafah border crossing on Nov. 1, a day when dozens of badly injured Palestinians made it out of Gaza into Egypt, along with six buses of foreign passport holders. Ibraheem Abu Mustafa/Reuters
People in Gaza City run for cover after a strike near al-Shifa hospital on Nov. 1. Authorities in the Hamas-held enclave said the hospital was close to running out of fuel for generators. BASHAR TALEB/AFP via Getty Images
A worker takes part in a rescue and recovery unit's survey of damaged cars for human remains near Netivot, Israel. The cars were recovered after the Oct. 7 attacks by Hamas. Amir Cohen/Reuters

Day 27: New weapons, new dangers

Hezbollah sent explosive drones to attack Israeli troops, the militant group said on Nov. 2, signalling a new first in the tactics used in Lebanese-Israeli border skirmishes. A day earlier, Hezbollah announced another precedent-setting attack, a surface-to-air missile that shot down an Israeli drone.

In Rafah, Canadian citizens and permanent residents were apparently denied permission to leave Gaza, but Global Afairs Canada said it was hopeful for daily departures in the future.

More: Israeli scientist who helped African farmers fight hunger is now a hostage of Hamas

Israelis practice shooting in the West Bank settlement of Migdal Oz on Nov. 2. Gun violence in the West Bank was at a more than 15-year high before war broke out, and has increased since. ARIS MESSINIS/AFP via Getty Images
A Palestinian whose neighbour is in hospital takes care of her pets in Khan Younis on Nov. 2. With as much as a third of Gaza’s hospitals out of commission, medical care is out of reach for many Palestinians. MAHMUD HAMS/AFP via Getty Images
In Rafah, Palestinians reload a truck with boxes of aid that fell off en route. At the nearby border crossing, Palestinians with foreign passports waited for a second straight day in hopes of leaving Gaza. Ibraheem Abu Mustafa/Reuters

Day 28: Hezbollah would like a word

Oct. 7 was a “100-per-cent Palestinian” operation, Hezbollah leader Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah said in a Nov. 3 speech, apparently distancing his Iranian-backed group from the initial attacks while supporting Hamas’s actions since. He did not rule out an escalation by his forces in Lebanon and said an all-out regional conflict was a “very likely possibility” unless fighting in Gaza stopped, and he called on Arab countries to cut off food and oil shipments to Israel to apply pressure.

U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken returned to Tel Aviv on Nov. 3, telling reporters that more needs to be done to protect Palestinian civilians and get both sides back on track for a two-state solution. That work must begin “not tomorrow, not after today, but today.”

More: What would a ceasefire or ‘humanitarian pause’ mean in the Israel-Hamas war?

At a shop in the West Bank town of Tuba, people watch a televised speech from Hezbollah leader Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah, his first since the war between Hamas and Israel began. ‘Arab and Muslim states must spare no effort to at least put an end to the war,’ he said. ‘Sever relations. Recall ambassadors.’ JAAFAR ASHTIYEH/AFP via Getty Images
Hills near Tel Aviv can be seen from the aircraft carrying U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken on another visit to Israel. JONATHAN ERNST/POOL/AFP via Getty Images
Mourners in Khan Younis attend the funeral of Palestinian journalist Mohammed Abu Hattab, who was killed in an Israeli strike. Mohammed Salem/Reuters

With reports from Mark MacKinnon, Geoffrey York, Nathan Vanderklippe, The Canadian Press, Associated Press and Reuters

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